Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis <p>Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies is an international peer-reviewed journal published from November 2019 by Richtmann Publishing Ltd. AJIS is indexed by SCOPUS and seeks a reassessment of all the human and social sciences. The Journal has been published from January 2017 to September 2019 by Sciendo DeGruyter and previously by MCSER. If you are interested in publishing with us please send your manuscripts via online submission or by email to: ajis@richtmann.org</p> en-US <p><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a></p> <p>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>.</p> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</p> ajis@richtmann.org (Prof. Marco Cilento) ajis@richtmann.com (Miranda Vercelli) Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Balanced Scorecard: Key Tool for Strategic Learning and Strengthening in Business Organizations http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11667 <p>The Balanced Scorecard has been conceived as a key tool in administrative management processes, becoming significant contributions for business organizations. The objective of the article was to analyze the intention of analyzing the perspectives, advantages and possible barriers that limit the success and / or applicability of this administrative tool, achieving through the theoretical bases to demonstrate the usefulness of this management tool, which today It constitutes a coherent instrument whose indicators determine the parameters for the management measurement. The research had a descriptive-explanatory character, with longitudinal design. A digital documentary analysis was applied. The results were analyzed using the Balanced Scorecard Usage Survey 2018 system. The study revealed that this tool is considered an important contribution to the organizational management, with a high satisfaction for its use, finally guidelines for new investigations are recommended analyzing the causes of bad practices in its design and implementation.</p> Vega Falcón Vladimir, Navarro Cejas Mercedes, Cejas Martínez Magda Francisca, Mendoza Velazco Derling José Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11667 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Challenges for the Academic Editor in the Scientific Publication http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11668 <p class="05ABSTRACT">The academic editor has been, and still is, the gatekeeper of peer-reviewed scientific publications, by being whom, ultimately, defines whether or not a manuscript can be published. At a time of profound transformation in the context of scientific publication (digital publishing, open access, preprint, open peer review,...) and the expectations, inside and outside academia, towards academic publication, this perspective paper aims to add to the discussion of the (re)formulation of the academic editor’s role, considering that he or she, in this panoply of changes, continues, and will continue to be, the ultimate guardian of the scientific quality of what is published.</p> Sandro Serpa, Maria José Sá, Ana Isabel Santos, Carlos Miguel Ferreira Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11668 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Semantic Peculiarities of the Verbs with the Highest Degree of Polysemy Denoting Conflict Actions http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11669 <p class="05ABSTRACT">The purpose of thе article is to conduct a lexico-semantic analysis of the language units denoting conflict actions in modern English. Our task is to find out the semantic peculiarities of the polysemantic verbs in the language under study, which form the group of words denoting conflict actions with the highest degree of polysemy. The research has been carried out with the help of the system and structural approach, based on a combination of the formalized analysis of lexical semantics with linguistic methods of research. Such a combination is necessary for revealing the system and structural organization of lexical units denoting conflict actions and their inner mechanisms of functioning in modern English. As a result, the degree of the semantic relativity of the language units denoting conflict actions as well as the character of the semes’ functionality have been revealed. In addition, both common and distinctive features, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the verbs’ semantics in the language under study have been disclosed. Complex lexico-semantic analysis of the language units denoting conflict actions in English gave the opportunity to treat them as phenomena of person’s everyday life and activities as well as to find out different ways and means of their language expressions by means of the matrix.</p> Oksana Ivanivna Myhalets Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11669 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 ‘Honor’ Killings in Misogynistic Society: A Feminist Perspective http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11670 <p>The plight of women in Pakistan is terrible in terms of gender-based violence.&nbsp; Every year more than thousand women have been killed in the name of ‘honor’. The aim of this paper is to explain the&nbsp;&nbsp; underlying causes of the incidents of ‘honor’ killings, and find out the reason why many instances of ‘honor’ killings go unreported and the perpetrators usually able to evade punishment. This study found that the prevailing ideology of honor, a stimulus to honor killing, gender-biased, abusive, and corrupt to the core police force along with the weak judicial system and legal loopholes in existing laws are the determining factor of unabated incidents of killing under the pretext of honor. This study asserts that Pakistani government must act quickly and decisively to plug legal loopholes in order to halt the most consistent, abhorrent heinous violence from going unpunished. Furthermore, the gender bias permeates in institutions at all levels, therefore, there must be mandatory sensitivity training for both the police investigating honor crimes and the judges adjudicating over them. The authorities must ensure that police without bowing to any pressure be it political or religious impartially investigate the cases of ‘honor’ killings. This study understands that the incidents of honor killings are the manifestation of the patriarchy, therefore, aforementioned measures are critical elements but not sufficient to deal the issue of ‘honor’ killing. There is the need of transformative change in society which can occur with the reduction of gender inequality. The state of women cannot be improved unless women get economic independence, greater access to education, increase participation in political activities, and get widespread awareness of socio-economic and political issues.</p> Abdul Hadi Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11670 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Adaptive Strategies of External Environmental Effects in Digital Entrepreneurship in the Strategic Management Perspective http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11671 <p>The rapid development of information technology and digitalization has formed a specification in the economic field, in the form of a digital creative economy. This economic cluster generally refers to entrepreneurship developed through the use of the internet and digital advancements to create business opportunities with excellence in the value of services and products. In strategic management, the development of technology that is widely adopted in company policy in improving service and product quality is an external element. In addition to having an extraordinary impact on consumption patterns, distribution and production, information technology is now able to become a fundamental instrument as the essence of creating value for products and services. This leads to a paradigm shift in the strategic management perspective, from the perception of technological externalities to internalities in value creation and policy making. This study seeks to identify shifts in the paradigm of the external environment of technology in contemporary business that develops ICT and the internet as the basis for digitalization and virtualization of exchanges of products, services and transactions between business actors. The results show that unlike conventional companies that respond to technological advances need technological advancements as an added value of their products and services, digital entrepreneurship uses technological advancements as a core part of product development and value creation. This study identifies important elements regarding adaptive strategies of external environmental effects in digital entrepreneurship. The results show that the shift in technological externalities to integrated digital entrepreneurship is capable of digitizing the creation of values ​​and opportunities and operating digital-based businesses.</p> Teddy Hikmat Fauzi, Benyamin Harits, Deni Muhammad Danial, Kokom Komariah Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11671 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Topical Issues of Interpretation of the Criminal Procedure Norms on the Basis of Judicial Practice Taking into Account the International and Russian Components http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11672 <p class="05ABSTRACT">The research reveals the peculiarities of interpretation of the criminal procedure norms emphasizing the practical importance. Its purpose is to identify and solve problems of law enforcement in criminal proceedings. The nature and types of interpretation of the criminal procedure norms were subjected to a detailed analysis based on the judicial and investigative practice. Difficulties with interpretation of the criminal procedure norms in connection with the legislative gaps, difficulties in the process of interpreting the cross-industry terms lack of digital information support of the newly published acts interpreting the norms of law and establishment of specific terms for its implementation, were singled out as separate problems. The use of a set of methods of scientific cognition was promotive of the achievement of the result. The conclusions show that the competent interpretation and application of the criminal procedure law by the courts, taking into account the specifics of this branch of law, can increase the efficiency of justice. The scientific novelty of this research is that for the first time, in an integrated manner and on the basis of a systematic analysis of the practice of interpretation and application of the norms of criminal law. It is planned to formulate proposals and recommendations to improve the work of the courts, law enforcement bodies and the advocacy suggesting specific measures to optimize the said direction.</p> Tatyana Gennad’evna Borodinova, Anna Alexandrovna Petrikina, Vladimir Vladimirovich Borodinov, Irina Vladimirovna Gubko Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11672 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Market Model with Positive Demand Curve Overthrows Marxist and Keynesian Model http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11673 <p>In this paper is analyzed the demand and supply side from the perspective of Marxist theory. The supply and demand side is both analyzed with their respective characteristics in capitalism, socialism and in a mixed economy. The possibilities of a macroeconomic equilibrium by considering the following concepts such as commodity, value, price, profit are analyzed. The aim of this paper is: to develop through a non-exhaustive analysis, the common features and differences between macroeconomic models of the aggregate market in the two systems, to build the aggregate market of a macroeconomic model by taking into account these characteristics and to emphasize its importance for the economy. In conclusion, differences between concepts related to macroeconomic equilibrium were identified. A new equilibrium model for the socialist and capitalist model was built. In centralized economies, demand and supply curve lies in a parallel curve with the X-axis, were domestic product is placed. In the market economy model, the demand and supply curve has a positive slope and stretch simultaneously over the market price line. They do not intersect with each other as in the Classical and Keynesian model. This market model applies to the economy. It allows governments, central banks, research institutions, universities, various researchers, etc. to analyze macroeconomic indicators. In this paper, the model is applied to the Albanian economy. In this paper, we used the methods of analysis and synthesis, comparison and description, the method of creating virtual market models, etc.</p> Alqi Naqellari Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11673 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Effect of Instructional Leadership, Principal Efficacy, Teacher Efficacy and School Climate on Students’ Academic Achievements http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11674 <p class="05ABSTRACT"><span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;">This study is aimed to identify the influence of instructional leadership, principal’s efficacy, teachers’ efficacy and school climate on the academic achievement of national secondary school students in the Sri Aman Division, Sarawak. The respondents of the study consisted of 186 teachers in 7 National Secondary Schools (NSS) in Sri Aman, Sarawak. This study used a quantitative method that is a cross-sectional approach for data collection purposes. Respondents responded using a questionnaire. The SmartPLS 3.0 path modelling software of the route model was used for PLS-SEM analysis. The results of the PLS-SEM analysis found that the instructional leadership of principals, efficacy of principals, efficacy of teachers and school climate have significant relationships with students' academic achievement in the 7 National Secondary Schools (NSS) in Sri Aman, Sarawak. This proves that these four variables have a strong influence on students' academic achievement and are predictors of students’ academic achievement performance at national secondary schools in the Sri Aman Division. However, teachers’ experience as a moderating factor was found to not affect the independent variables against the dependent variable. Finally, a comprehensive analysis on the implications of the study was carried out so that it can contribute to the scientific field of research in education.</span></p> Iran Jalapang, Arumugam Raman Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11674 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Application of the Principles of Business Judgment in the Authoritative Function of Directors of Limited Liability Company in Singaporean and Indonesian Legal Perspectives http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11675 <p>The purpose of this study is to analyze the functions and authority of the director of limited liability company in applying business judgment principles, by taking comparative law studies in Singapore's common law and in Indonesia's civil law. By taking emphasis on the authority of directors in representing limited companies both in and out, there are several authorities that are regulated in it. This study was conducted with a comparative law approach, with descriptive qualitative analysis. The results showed that sometimes directors act outside their authority and can harm a limited liability company. On the other hand, that there are actions of the board of directors that are in accordance with their authority but still harm the limited liability company. In this case, the shareholders often hold accountable. In corporate law there is a principle of business judgment where a director cannot be held accountable if the directors are proven to have good faith. The difference between Singapore law and Indonesian law in regulating the authority of directors is the good faith assessment held by directors.</p> Daniel Hendrawan, Emilia Fitriana Dewi, Subiakto Sukarno, Isti Raafaldini Mirzanti Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11675 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Trying to Identify some Ancient Residences in Albania through Old Maps http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11676 <p>This paper attempts to identify ancient settlements in Albania by cartographic methods by elaborating geographical coordinates obtained from Ptolemy's work. The results of the paper are of interest for archeology, history, geography, geodesy, photogrammetry etc. The problem addressed is not simple, as for some settlements, different literature sources give different values ​​of geographical coordinates. In this context, those geographic coordinate systems that best deal with the real position of these settlements are selected. Thus, for example, the longitude (L) of Ohrid (which serves as a support point), in some sources is given the value L1 = 46040 ', while in later sources it is given the value L2 = 470 40'. The calculations are performed for both cases of this longitude, but greater certainty is given when L2 = 47040 'is obtained, because the geographical longitude of Skopje (Scupi with L = 48030'), Prishtina (Ulpiana, with L = 48040 '), Peja (Siparantum, with L = 46030'), etc., are closer to reality than L = 46040 ', according to which Ohrid appears to be highly displaced to the west, in relation to the aforementioned sites (pic. 2.1). Consequently, settlements located in and near the Apollo - Orikum-Ohrid triangle are identified with other sites (as noted in the following statements). All of these anomalies and others such as these have been handled carefully and according to a logical rationale for the material being processed, taking into account all factors that positively impact the settlement identification process.</p> Agim Shehu, Ferim Gashi, Pal Nikolli Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11676 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Post-ISIS Era and the State Dissolution in the Middle East: Iraq as a Case http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11677 <p>Since its establishment, the modern Iraqi state has witnessed instabilities, insurgencies, continuous cyclic violent conflicts among its heterogenic components. The emergence of IS group in Iraq was the latest and at the same time one of the darkest episodes in the series of modern Iraq's turbulent history. This bloody and horrible violent wave that embodied in the form of such terrorist organization, which committed all kinds of brutality against humanity, forced ordinary Iraqi people from all its heterogenic populations, together with experts to question the possibility of peaceful coexistence, stability, and continuance in living together within the border of an integrated Iraq. Unlike most experts that tend to deal with each of Iraq's violent waves separately and prescribe particular prescriptions for each of them, this paper argues that those continuous, persistent, and intractable conflicts were just symptoms, and the cause of modern Iraq's problems had proceeded from misperception and miscalculations of both exogenous state builders (Great Britain and the USA) during their efforts for state-building in Iraq in the 1920s and 2003 respectively. According to this paper, in the case of Iraq's state-building, non-ethnic solutions (assimilation, and integration), and even ideal ethnic solutions like federation have been experienced without any tangible progress regarding durable and long-standing stability in Iraq. By keeping the fact that primordial ethno-sectarian affiliations are beyond transformation in mind, the study endorses the 'soft partition plan' presented as the latest proposal for a new state-building process in Iraq which supported by some scholars, academics, and essential international political figures that have their fingerprint on the global level.</p> Kardo Rached, Wrya Hiwa Ali Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11677 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Choice-less Choice in the 2019 Presidential Election: Towards the Intrigues Perfected by the Electoral System in Nigeria http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11678 <p>Literature on election is mostly anchored on how the voting exercise was carried out successfully or rigged in favour of one candidate over another. These scholars were only interested in analyzing the outcome of election with little or no effort to understand why electorates who cast their votes during election do not choose their leaders. While we acknowledged that vote buying, snatching of ballot boxes, intimidation, and different pattern of malpractices among others contributed to these, we equally noted that scholars have not really tried to find out why the electoral system in Nigeria could not allow candidates that would not only attract massive support but become irresistible during and after election. Therefore, what is often witnessed among presidential flag bearers in Nigeria are candidates who the electorates knew would not make significant impact if elected. As a result, make them (electorates) see voting during election as a routine exercise that must be fulfilled without enthusiasm or eagerness in carrying out such obligation. Election in this situation becomes so difficult that whoever is elected is not actually chosen by the electorates but is allowed to keep the country on track. These political parties are only interested on the radical nature of candidates who can withstand the campaign strategies leaving other areas like understanding - the political terrain of the country and having the will power to transform society against other odds. Until this issue is properly addressed and handled in the political system, voting in election will remain a mere process of choosing leaders that will neither attract peoples mandate nor sustain the democratic structures</p> Kingsley E. Okoye, Chikwado Ezugwuorie, Francisca Onah Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11678 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Procedures for Completing Small Claims Lawsuit of Civil Cases in District Court in Indonesia http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11679 <p class="05ABSTRACT">The development of legal relations in the economic and other civil sectors in community highly requires a faster and less costly dispute resolution process, especially in small civil disputes. In connection with this matter, Indonesian Supreme Court issued various Supreme Court regulations, including Regulation No. 2 of 2015 concerning Procedures for Completion of Small Claims. The issuance of this regulation was to resolve special civil disputes regarding the acts against the law. In a small claim court lawsuit, it is required that the plaintiff and defendant be in the same jurisdiction. The value of the material suit in a small claim lawsuit is at most IDR 200 million or equal to 13,811 USD. Furthermore, for a small claim examination and verification of a lawsuit, it is carried out in a small manner, where the period of completion is determined a maximum of 25 days from the first trial day to the decision.</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">&nbsp;</p> Marjo, Nanik Rofikoh Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11679 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Linguistic Forms and Text Functions http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11680 <p class="05ABSTRACT">Discussions and efforts to separate forms of literary and non-literary texts date from the ancient times, through the works of Plato and Aristotle. In-depth studies are included in Aristotle's Poetics and Rhetoric work. Discussions of this nature continue to exist today, mainly related to language as the most powerful tool for literature, but also for other areas related to literature, such as philosophy, history, journalism and other sciences etc. In this paper we carry out an interdisciplinary research based on theories and practices of literary theory and linguistic, media and cultural research. Our work is based on the comparative methodology through which we research distinctions of a literary text from a non-literary one. Further research queries include defining aesthetic criteria or value, structure, style and other particular elements that distinguish and approximate these types of texts, and also how do we distinguish a literary text from a text that belongs to journalism, history and science spectres.</p> Mimoza Hasani Pllana Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11680 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Coastal and Marine Resource Policies and the Loss of Ethnic Identity of the Bajo Tribe http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11681 <p class="05ABSTRACT">The Bajo Tribe constructs themselves as part of their environment; their identity is bound to their relationship with coastal and marine resources. They lived and owned the coastal and marine resources in Tomini Bay since the 1800s; however, it shifted when the state set conservation and concession policies since the 1980s. This research analyzed the coastal and marine resource policies and its impact on the ethnic identity of the Bajo tribe. The researchers applied the historical sociology approach and collected data through observation, interviews, and documentation methods. The result showed that the state policies regarding coastal and marine resources, which followed by the resettlement program to the land, caused the customary institution of the Bajo Tribe removed from its cultural roots. Conservation policy resulted in the territorializing of coastal and marine areas. Meanwhile, the concession policy of forest management permit and cultivation right on land had caused damage in coastal and marine resources due to overexploitation. These policies cause the loss of ethnic identity of the Bajo Tribe due to closed access and destruction of coastal and marine resources.</p> Muhammad Obie, Lahaji Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11681 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Determinants of Capital Structure and Their Effect to Company’s Value: Study in LQ 45 Companies Listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11682 <p>The aim of the research is to analyse the effect of&nbsp; profitability, liquidity, and company’s size to company’s value and examines whetherDERis a mediating variable. Secondary data is taken from annual report of the companies. Analysis method used is multiple regression analysis (least square).&nbsp; The finding of the research showed thatDER mediated&nbsp; the relationship between CR&nbsp; andTobin’s Q. However DER is not a mediating variable for the relationship betweenRNOAand TOBINas well as between SIZE&nbsp; and Tobin’s Q. Mediating test is conducted by Sobel Test. The other finding is that RNOA positively affects to DER. CR negatively affects to DER. SIZE positively affects to DER and then DER negatively affects to Tobin’s Q. Recommendation for future research is to widen the samples, not just&nbsp; 42 companies, to add observed periods to give clearer description in long term.The next research can also use other dependent variables affecting capital structure and company’s value.</p> Andi Kartika, Sunarto Sunarto, Faisal Riza Rahman, Zaky Machmuddah Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11682 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Territorial Branding as an Instrument for Competitiveness of Rural Development http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11683 <p>The conceptual foundations, principles and mechanisms of territorial branding concerning the prospects of rural development in different countries are the subject of the study. The systematization and study of territorial branding problems and experience of the rural areas in Ukraine is the purpose of the paper. The main method of research was the study of the unique experience of individual rural communities. The methodology of the study foresaw the study of the prospects of rural development through the determining the role of territorial branding. Monitoring the potential of territorial branding for rural areas in Ukraine with using SWOT-analysis has shown the uniqueness of risks, limitations and prospects. It had been established that the conditions of neutralization of weaknesses and risks mean the combination of economic (primarily investment), cultural and political initiatives, where a significant role belongs to the effects of community self-organization. At the same time, the prospects are formed from the presence of unique institutional assets, natural, climatic and economic conditions, possible perception of this idea by ​​the rural population which does not contradict the basic cultural values. The emphasis is placed on the fact that the realization of rural development in Ukraine as a national policy should take into account that Ukrainian rural communities remain "difficult", mostly depressed economies, where the level of economic activity is traditionally low and unemployment is high. At the same time, studying the experience of the effectiveness of territorial branding had allowed to generalize and to classify the factors of brand-forming idea in Ukraine. These factors are: 1) a unique institutional history; 2) landscape and recreational potential; 3) special economic behavior of local inhabitants; 4) investment attractiveness of the territory; 5) unique economic specialization of the territory; 6) tourism activity; 7) the role of local government. Significant socio-economic effect of these examples is fixed. The area of ​​application of these results is the activity of local authorities at rural communities, non-governmental organizations and universities, regulatory policy in terms of decentralization.</p> Oleh V. Moroz, Nataliia P. Karachyna, Tetiana V. Vakar, Anna V. Vitiuk Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11683 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Higher Education in Kosovo: Media Coverage and the Challenges http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11684 <p class="05ABSTRACT">The purpose of this research work was to approach higher education in Kosovo from the viewpoint of both print and electronic media coverage, as well as to point out the challenges derived from the current practice. The paper addresses the impact of media on higher education promotion and development, in addition to quality improvement. Furthermore, it aims to generate discussion on how media coverage of higher education can positively contribute to its development, including impact on wider society. Media’s role in public information, its attitude in relation to educational reforms, and society’s awareness on changing needs have been analyzed thoroughly. In addition, the challenges faced by higher education institutions and its coverage by media were analyzed. The research was conducted with a structure and methodology based on theoretical, empirical findings, and discussion on education and media. The main finding is that media provide adequate coverage of events and information primarily in the negative context, with very little attention paid to good practices and more positive messages. Further, the research suggests that education in general and higher education in particular, is closely linked and affected by politics, On the other hand, there is a lack of professionalism in the journalist profession, particularly amongst those dealing with educational issues in general and higher education in particular. Electronic media coverage in many cases is considered disproportionate towards certain groups. Thus, both sides media and HE institutions are critical of each other and there is clear mistrust and lack of cooperation.</p> Anton Gojani, Lavdim Terziu, Osman Osmani Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11684 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Firm Size and Tax Saving Behaviour of Listed Companies in Nigeria http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11685 <p class="05ABSTRACT">In this paper has been investigated tax savings behaviour of firms in Nigeria with the objective of finding out how it affects firm size. The ex-post facto research design was employed, and secondary data obtained from the annual reports of firms listed on the Nigeria Stock Exchange was used. Descriptive statistics and panel data regression tests were conducted. The data were further subjected to unit root test to establish the stationarity of the data. The result revealed that interest tax savings behaviour and depreciation savings behaviour have negative but significant relationship with firm size while effective tax rate has negative and insignificant relationship with firm size. The study concluded that the lower the firm size the higher the tax savings behaviour and vice versa of quoted companies in Nigeria. The paper recommended that tax regulatory authorities should focus their searchlight on tax aggressiveness of small sized companies as a strategy to reduce tax evasion while encouraging appropriate tax savings strategies to ensure tax compliance.</p> Joseph U. Madugba, E. Ben-Caleb, Adedoyin I. Lawal, Uche T. Agburuga Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11685 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Gender Specificity in Democratic Elections: International Implementability as an Exemplary for Indonesian Political Landscape http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11686 <p class="05ABSTRACT">Women's participation in the electoral field is very important to be guaranteed by the state. In practice, there is often an imbalance in the number of female and male members. There needs to be a special policy to accommodate women's rights in these elections. This paper aims to examine how the legal construction in the electoral field is responsive to the right of women to participate. The method of approach used in this study is the socio-legal approach. The results found that the legal construction of gender justice-based elections to the electoral system is by increasing women's representation through the zipper system or alternating position between men and women in elections. In addition, this mechanism should be mutually agreed upon in various technical arrangements to implement this mechanism design.</p> Sekar Anggun Gading Pinilih Copyright (c) http://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/11686 Sun, 10 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200