Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies <p>Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies is an international peer-reviewed journal published from November 2019 by Richtmann Publishing Ltd. AJIS is indexed by SCOPUS and seeks a reassessment of all the human and social sciences. The Journal has been published from January 2017 to September 2019 by Sciendo-DeGruyter and previously in Rome by Sapienza University and MCSER. If you are interested in publishing with us please send your manuscripts via online submission or by email to: <strong></strong></p> Richtmann Publishing Ltd en-US Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 2281-3993 <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p> <p>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>.</p> <p> </p> Intersections between Modern and Contemporary Dance and Yoga Practice: A Critical Analysis of Spiritual Paths through Body Movement and Choreography <p>Bodily movement, rhythmic response, physical exercise and related techniques are sources of spiritual awareness. Yoga and dance are both concerned with the relationship between spirituality and the physical body. This paper presents a literature review of yoga and modern and contemporary dance as spiritual bodily practices. An electronic literature search was undertaken using Scopus, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE and Web of Science databases to examine the integration of modern and contemporary dance with yoga practice. The review reveals a number of important choreographic and spiritual similarities between these practices, including coordinated movement of the body with the breath, sequences of movements, rhythm, gestures and energy management. Many modern and contemporary dancers, choreographers and artists, such as Graham, include yoga techniques in their choreography and teaching. Through bodily movements, yoga and dance allow for self-awareness and self-perception, which aid in connecting the body, the brain and the soul with the divine. The paper finally suggests and describes how a combination of these two practices may be applied in conjunction with rhythm and music to enhance spirituality through body movement. This paper sought to expand the ways in which movement through yoga and modern and contemporary dance can be considered and practiced in relation to spirituality.</p> <p> </p> <p>Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Aglaia Zafeiroudi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 1 1 10.36941/ajis-2021-0094 Means of Individual Counteraction to Domestic Violence against Pregnant Women <p class="05ABSTRACT">Violence against a pregnant woman affects not only her but also the child, the woman is unable to resist properly. The purpose of the study was to develop the universal means of individual counteraction to domestic violence against pregnant women.<a name="_Hlk66354324"></a> The research work was carried out in stages based on the logic of the presentation of the material to achieve the goals and objectives that are set in the article. The study used statistics on domestic violence against women in Ukraine. The authors used the methods of selection and sampling, the method of systematic and pragmatic approach, the method of descriptive statistics. The main results of the study are: comparison of statistics on cases of domestic violence against pregnant women in certain countries; identifying types of domestic violence against pregnant women and its possible consequences for the health; establishing the causes of latency for domestic violence; determining the range of individuals that a pregnant woman can apply to in case of domestic violence; offering generalized tools of counteraction to domestic violence at the state level. It is suggested that the main means of individual counteraction to domestic violence against pregnant women are overcoming silence about such cases; overcoming the legal nihilism; information direction of work, which should consist the explaining to a pregnant woman what domestic violence is and the algorithm of response to it; preventive work with pregnant women and men; establishing compliance of state legislation with international regulations; legislative regulation of actions of medical workers in case of detection of the fact of domestic violence against a pregnant woman.</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT"> </p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Halyna P. Zharovska Olena I. Yuschyk Lesia V. Husar Tetiana V. Prodan Oleksiy V. Stratiy Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 16 16 10.36941/ajis-2021-0095 A Semiotic Translation of Memes: Trump’s Visit to Saudi Arabia as a Case Study <p class="05ABSTRACT">This study examines the semiotic translation of memes and their emergence as a new genre of items or entertainment that is becoming rapidly publicized across various social media platforms, such as Facebook and Instagram, among others. The researchers used Saussure's signifier for the translation of the semiotic relationship between images, text and meanings in the examination of six randomly selected internet memes about Donald Trump's visit to Saudi Arabia in 2017. The study results revealed that internet memes do not only transmit a variety of meanings but also convey expressive social and political messages. In addition, the study found that memes deliver entertainment and drive social media users to express common reactions. It was also found that memes affect the language, thoughts, and cultural concepts of any given nation.</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT"> </p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">Received: 30 March 2021 / Accepted: 28 June 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Anjad A. Mahasneh Hana Bashayreh Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 32 32 10.36941/ajis-2021-0096 Albania Between the Crisis of the Parliamentary Dialectic and the Dominant Role of the Government <p class="05ABSTRACT">The last years of Albanian parliamentary life were marked by a profound crisis. The parliament, not only had the task of managing a constitutional reform that brought the entire judicial system to its knees, transforming the vetting process into a reform with uncertain results, but also the political crisis, or rather the political-institutional stalemate for leaving the mandates of opposition parliamentarians.The failure to reach the quorum provided by the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, it raises considerable controversy over the legitimacy of the supreme authority and therefore on the legitimacy of institutions that depend on parliamentary votes, such as the election of constitutional judges. At the same time, when the "united opposition" left parliament, the new opposition was trying to keep up with parliamentary dialectics. Moreover, in recent years of parliamentary "identity crisis", the majority have resembled a "group of soldiers" under the command of the Prime Minister. Clearly, Parliament has weakened, lost its value, leading to a strengthening of the executive power, more precisely a strengthening of the figure of the head of government. Without a doubt, the crisis of Parliament translates into an inability of the people's representatives to solve the problems that are present in civil society. Consequently, the crisis of Parliament means a "silent people", a "mute people".The purpose of this document is the constitutional-philosophical analysis of historical memory of the role of Parliament in Albania from the Declaration of Independence to the present day. Perhaps historical memory is the key to reading the present and to better understand the crisis that Albanian Parliament has been going through in recent years.</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">&nbsp;</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Sokol Pacukaj Renata Tokrri Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 43 43 10.36941/ajis-2021-0097 Designing of Wet Transformers as Artificial Soil for Flower Tree Cultivation <p class="05ABSTRACT">This research is focusing on designing of wet garbage transformers as artificial soil. According to the result, it represented that the artificial soil can be brought to cultivate Marigold trees to be abundant with giving for Grade B flowers. Moreover, it has the duration to bloom in short times with good quality of tree’s height and suitable size of flower’s diameter. However, the customer satisfaction is depending on equipment uniqueness and applying convenience with the regression equation that is congruent to ŷ = (4.478) +(-0.002 X1) +(-0.066 X2) +(0.011 X3) +(0.074 X4) as in the form of criteria scores which is congruent to Z = (-0.003 X1) +(-0.088 X2) +(0.017 X3) +(0.095 X4).satisfaction at the excellent level for people in the development communities (Mean=4.10, S.D. =0.78).</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">&nbsp;</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Songwut Egwutvongsa Somchai Seviset Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 51 51 10.36941/ajis-2021-0098 The Role of Digital Marketing in Assisting Small Rural Entrepreneurs Amidst Covid-19 Movement Control Order (MCO): A Case Study in Peninsular Malaysia <p>The coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak is causing a global health crisis, which has inevitably led to a worldwide economic slowdown. In Malaysia, the small business sector is most affected by the movement control order (MCO). The MCO has caused the closure of the retail and transport sectors that has sharply curtailed the daily operations of the majority of small entrepreneurs, leading to a loss in income. However, if small business communities make optimal use of digital applications for their business activities, their income will be less affected by the current Covid-19 pandemic. Furthermore, the everyday use of ICT has the potential to create numerous landscape improvement and business continuity, specifically for small and medium entrepreneurs (SMEs). This, in turn, would increase community participation in entrepreneurship.&nbsp; Therefore, it is crucial to study the role of digital marketing in strengthening new business norms among small entrepreneurs during the Covid-19 pandemic. It is also imperative to identify other factors that can help boost digital business. This research examined the relationship between ICT use in empowering rural entrepreneurs during MCO in Malaysia. The study design consisted of a quantitative form for each research instrument using the Google Form online survey. This study’s sample was selected using a particular sampling method (purposive sampling) and snowball sampling (snowball sampling) involving 158 small rural entrepreneurs in Penang, Malaysia. The data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 27.0 software. The findings showed that the respondents navigated the Covid-19 pandemic by carrying out business activities on the digital platform and took full advantage of the ICT applications as part of their new business norms. This study can provide input for the government to formulate strategies related to ICT in increasing awareness among rural entrepreneurs. Additionally, the input of this study can offer programs and activities to further enhance the entrepreneurs’ skills in using ICT.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Siti Masayu Rosliah Abdul Rashid Fatimah Hassan Norhafiza Md. Sharif Azimah Abd Rahman Mohd Amirul Mahamud Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 70 70 10.36941/ajis-2021-0099 Establishing the Historiography of Islamic Sultanate in Nusantara <p class="05ABSTRACT">This article is to show how to formulate historiography of Islamic sultanate in Nusantara and This article aims to explain and explore Islamic civilization from the time of the Islamic sultanate in Nusantara (Southeast Asia). This study uses historical research methods with four procedures that are followed, namely Heuristic, Source Criticism, Interpretation, Historiography and a qualitative approach. The awareness and courage to use local sources will attract new enthusiasm in writing Islam Nusantara. Western scepticism towards the original source will only limit the creativity of local Muslim historians to create works of national identity and ancestry. This does not end with criticizing local sources and scavenging them, but instead honours them using the humanities disciplines to understand past content and information in an honest academic endeavour. If comprehensive mapping and reconciliation with local sources can be carried out, then Islam in Nusantara will gain a status as prestigious as elsewhere. Can strengthen regional Islamic identity and will strengthen the nations of Southeast Asia because of the same historical roots. From an institutional perspective, this study can guarantee the availability of religious data and information, especially those related to the early arrival of Islam and its development. Although many works have been published on the history of Islamic civilization in the Nusantara, there has been no special attention to the historical development of Islamic civilization seen from the side of the Islamic sultanate in the Nusantara.</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">&nbsp;</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Ajid Thohir Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 81 81 10.36941/ajis-2021-0100 Analysis of Export Determinants in Sudan by Using Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL) <p class="05ABSTRACT">Export increases the total demand in society, which in turn increases the level of income and more through the multiplier. This study investigates from an empirical point of view the determinants affecting Sudan’s exports during the period (1977- 2018). The purpose was to identify the interrelation between the variables and the findings can be used for the development of the economy. The data obtained from the annual time series of the World Bank; the data was input into the Auto regressive distributed lag model (ARDL) to find the results. The model used five explanatory variables (GDP, Growth Rate, Investment, Saving, Exchange Rate). The results showed that all explanatory variables had a positive effect on the exports. However, exchange rate was the only variable that showed negative effect on Sudan’s exports that made up Sudan’s low-income agriculture-based economy. This means that export of Sudan has affected by gross domestic product as well as investment rate.</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">&nbsp;</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Badreldin Mohamed Ahmed Abdulrahman Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 96 96 10.36941/ajis-2021-0101 Analyzing Heart Disease Mortality of Filipino: From Statistical Modeling to Health and Lifestyle Education Implications <p>This paper contributes an interdisciplinary cross-over in studying heart disease mortality of Filipino. First, it validates previous studies on heart diseases via ascertaining statistical models of analyses that estimate heart disease mortality predictability in the Philippines. It then proceeds to understand the implications of the issue through promoting health and lifestyle education. To do this, first, the report from the Epidemiology Bureau of the Department of Health (EBDOH) on mortality cases of diseases of the heart in the Philippines. Based on the statistical analyses, time series analysis suggested that the growth of heart disease mortality in the Philippines followed a quadratic trend. Moreover, symbolic regression (SR) analysis revealed that heredity has more significant influence over lifestyle between the identified factors. Based on the proposed models, this paper implies furthering community-oriented health and wellness programs as practical means to avoid untimely deaths brought by the said diseases.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Jabin J. Deguma Emerson D. Peteros Reylan G. Capuno Ricardo Q. Ybañez Danilo F. Cebe Helen O. Revalde Regina E. Sitoy Melona C. Deguma Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 106 106 10.36941/ajis-2021-0102 Has Albania's Economic Development Stalled? Investigating the Role of Institutional Factors in Albania's Economic Performance <p>This study focuses on the institutional factors of Albania's economic development, from a comparative, dynamic, and regional European perspective. We use longitudinal data for the years 2002, 2014, and 2019 and a small selection of 13 countries in the region and some EU member states. Descriptive statistics, graphical representation, and econometric modeling are used for data analysis. The purpose of the study is to discuss, in real and comparative terms with the region and beyond, the economic growth of Albania based on the GDP per capita indicator, as well as to identify and evaluate dynamically the role of institutions in the country's development through important institutional factors, such as the effectiveness of government, rule of law, corruption, etc. The analysis shows that Albania's economic performance is weakover the last two decades. This is reflected in the insufficient relative growth of GDP per capita, the small increase in per capita income, and especially in the low increase in income for every 1% of relative growth. In these indicators, Albania continues to be consistently in the lowest positions in the region and beyond. The study highlights the strong link between economic growth and the effectiveness of government, the rule of law, and weak control over corruption. Improving corruption control by one unit in the range (-2.5 to 2.5) is expected to improve GDP per capita by an average of about 2.2 times. Improving the rule of law by one point is expected to improve GDP per capita on average by about 2.4 times. The country's sluggish economic performance is mainly attributed to weak institutions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Myslym Osmani Kledi Kodra Drini Salko Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 114 114 10.36941/ajis-2021-0103 Quality and Tourism Supply: A Study of Enterprises Linked to Rural Community-Based Tourism in the Canton of Riobamba <p class="05ABSTRACT">This article focuses on the quality and supply of community-based tourism in the rural parishes of Calpi, Cacha and San Juan in the canton of Riobamba, Ecuador. The objective was to study the quality of the supply of community tourism services in the rural parishes of the canton of Riobamba and to determine the characteristics of the supply, services and tourism products. The methodology used was interpretative, documentary and descriptive. The results obtained show that there is a lack of tourism organisation in the rural parishes of the canton of Riobamba. Therefore, standards should be determined to regulate the practices of service providers in order to boost their productivity and promote actions that contribute to the social, economic and environmental development of the canton of Riobamba. State organizations should promote solidarity-based tourism activities to strengthen the active participation of the community from an intercultural perspective.</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">&nbsp;</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Silvia Marieta Aldáz Hernández Daniel Marcelo Guerrero Vaca Mercedes Carolina Navarro Cejas Magda Francisca Cejas Martínez Paula Elizabeth Moreno Aguirre Omar Patricio Flor Mora Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 130 130 10.36941/ajis-2021-0104 The Intention of Investors in Making Investment Decisions in Sharia Stocks: Empirical Study in Indonesian <p>This paper aims to examine the variables influencing the intention of Muslim investors in Indonesia in making sharia-stocks investment decisions. These variables are attitude, perceived behavioral control, religiosity, religious events, and profit maximization. Questionnaires are distributed to 150 respondents to collect data. This study selected respondents using the purposive sampling method. The criteria are (1) Active Muslim investors investing in sharia stocks (2) investors are not brokers or capital market employees Multiple linear regression as a technique of analysis is used to test hypotheses. The result indicates that all independent variables positively affect investor intention. The coefficient of determination (R-Square) shows that all independent variable in explaining investors’ intentions to invest in the sharia capital market is 0.857 or 85.70%, meaning that the opportunity for other variables to explain the investor intention variable to invest in the shariah capital market was 14.30%. According to Islamic teachings, this study's contribution is as a consideration for the Indonesia Stock Exchange, Capital Market Supervisory Agency, and other related institutions in terms of socializing investment in the Islamic capital market.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Dihin Septyanto Nur Sayidah Aminullah Assagaf Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 141 141 10.36941/ajis-2021-0105 Determining Factors on the Repurchase Decision on Low End Smartphones in Asia Pacific Regions: An Indonesian Case <p class="05ABSTRACT">Nowadays, consumers are more aware regarding their decision to purchase a product, either for short-term or long-term use. There are several factors that lead the desire to repurchase in consumer perspective. This study tried to investigate the factors of price, experiential value, brand name, e-WOM, perceived value and perceived brand image as some variables deemed to have significant influences on the consumer repurchase behavior. This analysis uses quantitative analysis through AMOS analysis within 310 datasets to execute the hypothesis. The results of this research are defined that the price discount did not affect both on perceived brand image and value. The hypotheses testing showed that experiential value, brand name, e-WOM, perceived value and perceived brand image have significant effects on the consumer repurchase behavior. The practical implications posed that the growth of micro-financial companies which provided low down payment and long instalment without any discount offered are well accepted by consumer. The results of this study can be used as a direction for further study.</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">&nbsp;</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Rianmahardhika Sahid Budiharseno Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 154 154 10.36941/ajis-2021-0106 Resilience of Pregnant and Parenting Learners to Pursue Educational Aspirations Within a Stigmatising School Setting in Rural South Africa <p>This study was premised on the increased demand for enrolment of pregnant and parenting learners (PPLs) at ordinary or conventional schools in South Africa due to the democratisation of access to education after the 1994 democratic dispensation. The study investigated how pregnant and parenting schoolgirls were resilient to continue with their educational aspirations at formal schools despite the social challenges that they faced in the school, family and community environments. A qualitative case study design was employed, and for confidentiality of the study participants, a face to face key-participant individual interview was the main data gathering instrument. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to select a total of 8 PPLs, 4 learners from each of the two schools who were either pregnant or had given birth at the time of data gathering to express their coping strategies within a formal school setting. Study results revealed that setting new goals after pregnancy, desire to achieve self-efficacy, strategies against hate language and support from their significant others were key contributors to the resilience for the continued pursuit of the PPLs’ educational aspirations. The main recommendation from the study is for school management teams to help build a safe, child friendly and inclusive social environment among the school-based education duty bearers.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Tawanda Runhare Eunice Kanaga-Majanga Rifumuni Nancy Mathebula Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 163 163 10.36941/ajis-2021-0107 The Availability of Services and Facilities Provided for Students with Disabilities at Al al-Bayt University in Jordan from Their Own Perspective <p class="05ABSTRACT">The study aims to examine the availability level of services and facilities provided for students with disabilities at Al Al-Bayt University from their own perceptions. Descriptive and analytical methodologies were used. Data was collected using a questionnaire consisting of (65) criteria distributed on (6) domains. Participants included all students with visual, hearing, and physical disabilities, with a total of (53) students from all faculties. All students receive support from the disability support division at the university. Results indicated that the availability of services and accommodations provided for students with disabilities were ranked respectively as follows: facilitations regarding information resources, social services, administrative facilitation, academic services and accommodations, physical accommodations, and finally library services and accommodations. The mean degree on the total score was (M = 1.81) which indicates a medium level. Also, results showed no statistically significant differences at (α = 0.05) due to type of disability on all domains and on the total degree for the nature of services and accommodations provided. There were also no statistically significant differences at (α = 0.05) due to the type of faculty on all domains and on the total degree for the nature of services and accommodations provided.</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">&nbsp;</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Wael Alshurman Akef Al-Khateeb Ihsan Al-Saree Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 174 174 10.36941/ajis-2021-0108 Obstacles of TQM Implementation in Saudi Universities: An Empirical Study <p class="05ABSTRACT">This study aims to identify the obstacles to the application of total quality management at the Saudi University from the faculty members' point of view and to identify the significance of statistical differences in the obstacles to the application of total quality management in Saudi universities from the viewpoint of faculty members according to the variables of gender, academic rank, and college. To achieve the study objectives, the researcher used the descriptive design and quantitative approach, depending on the questionnaire as the main instrument for collecting study data. The study was applied to a sample consisting of (350) faculty members at Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, who were selected randomly, the number of questionnaires valid for analysis (277) questionnaires. Among the most prominent results of this study showed that top management obstacles, human resources obstacles, student’s obstacles, financial resources, educational technology obstacles, community service obstacles, obstacles to scientific research, organizational culture obstacles, and educational curriculum obstacles are affecting on implementation of TQM at Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University from point of view faculty members. The results showed the top management obstacles came in the first rank among the obstacles that affect TQM implementation, followed by student’s obstacles, while financial resources obstacles and human resources obstacles come in the last obstacles affect TQM implementation at Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University from point of view faculty members. Also, the results showed there are no significant statistical differences in the obstacles to the application of total quality management according to the variables of gender, academic rank, and college.</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">&nbsp;</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Reema Mahmoud Abod AlOqlah Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 186 186 10.36941/ajis-2021-0109 English Language Component of the Mature Students’ Entrance Examinations into Ghanaian Universities: Placement, Diagnostic or Both? <p class="05ABSTRACT">One way that Ghanaian universities admit undergraduate students is an examination organised for candidates who are twenty-five years and above. This examination is known as the Mature Students’ Entrance Examinations (MSEE). <a name="_Hlk66692713"></a>This paper argues that the English language component of the MSEE should not only be used for placement purposes, but, also, for diagnostic purposes. A desk survey approach to research was adopted involving 43 relevant literature which were reviewed and synthesised. The study indicates that academic writing, referred to as Communication Skills, falls under the domain of English for Academic Purposes in an English as a Second Language setting like Ghana. It is further advanced that Communication Skills is essential for the performance of students in school. The paper, therefore, argues for the English language component of the MSEE to be used not only for placement purposes but for diagnostic purposes. The study recommends that the latter approach should be included since it will help improve the performances of students in Communication Skills.</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">&nbsp;</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Ramos Asafo-Adjei Ernest Kwesi Klu Albert Agbesi Wornyo Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 201 201 10.36941/ajis-2021-0110 Is It Possible to Change the Cyber Security Behaviours of Employees? Barriers and Promoters <p class="05ABSTRACT">The increase in cyber attacks cause individuals and businesses to face financial loss and reputation damage. Most cyber security studies ignore human factor and focus only on technological measures although the cyber security behaviors of employees are vital for the organisations. This paper aims to explore and discuss the role of employees in cyber security. In-depth interviews with eight cyber security experts were conducted through semi-structured, open-ended interviews. This study gives perspectives regarding the cyber security behaviors of employees, the barriers and promoters of secure behaviors in cyberspace. The findings mainly stem reasons of unsecure behaviors and solutions for them, and provide implications to companies for effective training and recommendations to adopt secure behaviors in the companies.</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">&nbsp;</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Ahu Ergen Ahmet Naci Ünal Mehmet Sıtkı Saygili Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 210 210 10.36941/ajis-2021-0111 The Role of the Financial and Macroeconomy Industry on the Development of the Sukuk (Sharia Compliant Bonds) Market: The Case of Indonesia <p>The purpose of this study is to empirically determine whether the banking sector, bond market and conventional stock market as well as macroeconomic variables can influence the development of the Sukuk (Sharia Compliant Bonds) market in Indonesia. This study uses secondary data taken from the Indonesian Stock Exchange, OJK and the Indonesian Statistics Agency. The data used is monthly data from January 2014 to December 2018 which includes the outstanding value of Sharia Compliant Bonds, outstanding bonds value, stock capitalization value and macro variable data in the form of GDP data and export-import trade data. Based on the results of data analysis, it shows that the variables of all financial investment variables, namely the banking sector, the bond market and stocks have a positive effect on the development of the Sharia Compliant Bonds market. in Indonesia, while for the macroeconomic variables only the GDP variable affects the development of the Sharia Compliant Bonds market in Indonesia. The trade-to-foreign ratio variable has no effect on the development of the Sharia Compliant Bonds market in Indonesia.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Datien Eriska Utami Zulfa Irawati Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 225 225 10.36941/ajis-2021-0112 Language Attitudes of Jordanian Students Towards English Language <p class="05ABSTRACT">This study discussed the language attitudes among EFL students in Jordan society. The present study aimed to investigate the level of language attitude and to discover the relationship between gender, language experience, and the place of learning the language with language attitude. The participants of this study were 300 tenth school students from a private school in Irbid governorate, Jordan. Data was collected through a questionnaire contained 55 statements which were adapted from (Gardener’s, 1985). The descriptive analysis used in this research to discover the level of language attitude. T-test and ANOVA were also used to achieve the second research objective. The results of the study revealed that the participants showed a medium level toward learning the language. Female students reported having a higher level of attitude towards learning the language more than male does. Students who learned English at pre-school have more positive attitude compared with others, students who start to learn the language at the age of 6 and below have more positive attitude that the second group. They can speak with more confident way than other groups. Finally, the findings of this study should be used as starting point for both English instructors and students.</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">&nbsp;</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Ibrahim Fathi Huwari Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 237 237 10.36941/ajis-2021-0113 New Norms of Online Teaching and Learning: Covid-19 Semester Experience for Universiti Malaysia Terengganu Students <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the national education agenda at all levels of education. New Teaching and Learning (T&amp;L) online norms have been executed except for specific academic programs and subjects only since 18 March 2020 when the Movement Control Order (MCO) was administered and continued to this day. To guarantee students’ continuity of education without online T&amp;L dropout, online face-to-face (Synchronous) or not face-to-face (Asynchronous) is now become the primary approach and method platform with many virtual education applications. Therefore, this research examined students’ readiness to follow online teaching and learning and analysed the impact of online T&amp;L on the national education agenda. This study involved 133 students of Diploma in Fisheries, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, for the first semester of 2020-21. Data were obtained through a questionnaire using Google Form and presented to students by sharing links to their WhatsApp group in the final week of study. The questionnaire was adapted from several instruments related to various aspects of online T&amp;L during the COVID-19 pandemic. The outcomes revealed that most students were among Gen-Z with digital literacy background. Thus, it was assisting them having a high level of readiness to face online T&amp;L. In terms of the availability of device infrastructure, internet access, e-Learning, and computers, most (80%) have mastered it. Only (20%) have low proficiency due to limited experience using computers and gadgets due to family constraints and their literacy levels. The research conclusion recommends a consecutive enhancement in curriculum structure flexibility, delivery, evaluation; internet accessibility and digital gap, and self-motivation of students entering the era of the self-regulated learner. Transformation demands the strategic cooperation of various parties in educational institutions, government agencies, the private sector, NGOs, and people’s leaders in the interest of the country’s advancing education relevant to the era of global technology-oriented education and digital infrastructure.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Noor Rohana Mansor Asyraf Hj Ab Rahman Ahmad Tajuddin Azza J. Roswati Abd Rashid Nurul Ain Chua Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 248 248 10.36941/ajis-2021-0114 COVID-19 as a National Security Issue in Malaysia: A Comparison with the Italian and Australian Perspectives <p class="05ABSTRACT">COVID-19 pandemic affects variations of countries’ national strategies, policies, and plans of actions while at the same time these arrangements afflicting their residents by implementing a variety of health and legal measures to flatten the COVID-19 curve. This stretches from prohibiting overseas travel, forbidding interstate travel, encouraging work from home closings of some public areas, compulsory wearing of marks and hand sanitisers, quarantine, social distancing, and a mixture of various actions. Malaysia in implementing its laws and regulations on COVID-19 is empowered mainly by the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases Act 1988 (Act 342) together with its newly imposed COVID-19 regulations and the old Police Act 1967 (Act 344). The movement control order coupled with the social distancing measures has appeared to be the effective actions in flattening the COVID-19 curve. The study attempts to map COVID-19 as a national security matter for the benefit of public health and national security concurrently within the scope and limits of Malaysia’s public health measures and prevention of diseases, in the protection of security and public order. This paper then proposed for COVID-19 and other future health crises or pandemics as national security issues. This in turn legitimising the health, security, or emergency measures, either developing on the existing laws or moving towards a more practical form of law in line with future unforeseeable threat and intervention.&nbsp;The Australian and Italian laws relating to COVID-19 are analysed to provide better insight and suggest solutions enabling countries facing a future emergency or crisis issues.</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">&nbsp;</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Noor Dzuhaidah Osman Fareed Mohd Hassan Amalina Ahmad Tajudin Muhammad Nizam Awang Ali Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 261 261 10.36941/ajis-2021-0115 Assessment of Applying Saudi Labour Law to Digital Platform Workers: Taking Uber as an Example <p>The use of technology platforms has become quite common and popular worldwide. Some of these platforms have used for business purpose such as connecting taxi drivers with riders or providing delivery services. At present, there are famous institutions employing persons to provide their services through digital platforms, and in some states, such persons are considered workers. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, it is significant to find a direct answer to whether or not persons using digital labour platforms to offer services could be regarded as workers, and the Saudi Labour Law must, or not, be applied to govern their contracts with the enterprises that own these platforms. This paper aims to find a legal solution to this issue and concentrates on digital platform workers in Saudi Arabia. It examines mainly legal sources relating to Saudi Labour Law such as books, and investigates a number of reported judgments issued by the Commission for the Settlement of Labour Disputes in Saudi Arabia in 2010 and 2011.It also reviews relative information provided on the web sites of Uber. The finding is that the traditional rules of Saudi Labour Law should apply to these types of work agreements, and persons rendering their services through digital platforms must be protected by the rules established in the Law, but, according to the recent provisions adopted by the Saudi Ministry of Human Resources and Social Development, it seems that they are considered as freelancers.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Meshal Nayef Alharbi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 273 273 10.36941/ajis-2021-0116 The Effect of Listening to The Holy Qur’an on Improving Some Psychological and Physical Variables Among Yoga Practitioners <p class="05ABSTRACT">This study aims to identify the effect of listening to the Holy Qur’an on some psychological and physical variables among practitioners of yoga exercises among Al Ain University students. Where the study population consisted of male and female students of the Physical Health course in the first semester of the academic year 2020/2021, and the study sample was chosen by the deliberate method as it consisted of (80) students from the original study community, and in one experimental group to achieve the study objectives and its questions, where psychological measurements (mood, focusing attention) were performed during the practice of yoga exercises before and after listening to the Holy Qur’an and after performing a constant intensity (below the maximum) for the sample members, and the physical variables (heart rate ,muscle relaxation and flexibility) for all members of the study sample before and after listening to the Qur’an, the pulse was also measured, as the experiment was repeated a week after with listening to the Qur’an while performing yoga exercises, where the researchers used a headset connected to a personal phone and a smartwatch to calculate the intensity of the pulse individually for each player to listen to the Holy Qur’an. After collecting the data and using the necessary statistical treatments, the results of the study showed a clear improvement in the psychological and physical variables of the study sample during listening to the Holy Quran, and in light of the results, the researchers recommended that they prefer the use of listening to the Holy Qur’an while practicing yoga exercises, and in training sessions, especially curative ones, as well as conducting similar studies for players who show signs of anxiety before competition and after training for the purpose of recovery and calming down, and applying the study to different categories of athletes and in some sports.</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">&nbsp;</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Majed Saleem El-Saleh Imad Ibraheem Mostafa Waleed M. Shaheen Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 286 286 10.36941/ajis-2021-0117 Controls on Establishing Private Universities and Colleges in the Saudi Legal System: Legal Descriptive Analytical Study <p>Education at all levels (general/university) aims to develop plans worldwide, whether in the governmental and private sectors.&nbsp; It is the same as what we will find in the Saudi system, which has paid great attention to the education sector. Due to the importance of the private university’s role, we aim to present the regulating provisions of establishing private universities and colleges considering the most crucial objective and formal controls mentioned in the relevant laws and regulations. We also present some judicial applications issued by the competent judiciary. Our research scope is limited to the legal provisions in force of the Saudi legal system. It is strongly recommended to launch unified provisions for establishing private universities and colleges in the Saudi system.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Received: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021</p> Shady Mohamed Arafa Hegazy Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-08 2021-07-08 10 4 296 296 10.36941/ajis-2021-0118