Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis <p>Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies is an international peer-reviewed journal published from November 2019 by Richtmann Publishing Ltd. AJIS is indexed by SCOPUS and seeks a reassessment of all the human and social sciences. The Journal has been published from January 2017 to September 2019 by Sciendo DeGruyter and previously by MCSER. If you are interested in publishing with us please send your manuscripts via online submission or by email to: <strong>ajis@richtmann.org</strong></p> Richtmann Publishing Ltd en-US Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 2281-3993 <p><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a></p> <p>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>.</p> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</p> Sustainable Activities of Universities: Experience from the Open Access Articles in the Economic Subject Area https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12280 <p>Following to the global trends, the future role of sustainable universities will expand with the new focuses as, for example, entrepreneurial activities and Open Science. Entrepreneurial activities of universities provide possibilities to contribute to sustainability and Open Science is the tool for fast and simultaneous spread and exchange of the newest knowledge and good practices. This research focuses on three questions – how widespread economically oriented sustainable activities of universities are, which activities universities prefer as sustainable and economically oriented, and how often universities share such knowledge through Open Access articles. For the purpose, the author applies the monographic method, the logical analysis method, and the scientific induction method for the study of the selected Open Access articles about sustainable activities of universities in the economic subject area. Research findings indicate that the idea about sustainable and economically oriented activities of universities is widespread around the world and there are case studies from Europe, North America, Asia, and Africa. The analysis demonstrates differentiated accents in sustainable economically oriented activities of universities – globally accepted sustainability goals in economic sphere, entrepreneurial ecosystems, topicality of sustainability content in education for participants of labour market, new teaching approaches, transdisciplinary research, and university as sustainable and competitive participant at the market. Although, it is noteworthy to highlight that the exchange of knowledge and practice through Open Access articles in the relevant subject area is relatively modest and requires more attention from universities.</p> Viktorija Šipilova Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 1 1 10.36941/ajis-2020-0106 The Significant Effect of Leadership and Conflict Management on Job Satisfaction https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12281 <p>The purpose of this work is to present evidence which illustrate the significant effect of leadership and conflict management on employee satisfaction in a range of professions. Leadership and conflict management have a significant effect on job satisfaction. This is illustrated with examples of the interaction between these parameters in a range of professions. It&nbsp;is&nbsp;worth&nbsp;noting&nbsp;that&nbsp;a significant effect of leadership is exhibited in a range of different professional sectors and groups&nbsp;of&nbsp;employees, reflecting the universal value of leadership interacting with a wide range of parameters which may vary according to age, level of education, working conditions, cultural differences and employee expectations. Irrespective of the complexity and variety of determinant parameters, the effect of leadership and conflict management on job satisfaction has been widely exhibited in the reviewed data of the present analysis. Motivated and satisfied employees are a key in achieving organizational goals and leaders should take into account factors related to work performance, motivation and job satisfaction.</p> Sophia Anastasiou Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 9 9 10.36941/ajis-2020-0107 Influence of Timing in Introducing Teacher Performance Evaluation on Effective Outcomes: The Case of One Education District in Zimbabwe https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12282 <p>This paper reports on a study that assessed how timing of introducing teacher performance evaluation in one district in Zimbabwe influenced the achievement of the desired outcomes.&nbsp; The research was premised on the pragmatic research paradigm and underpinned by the Readiness Assessment, Design, Process, Significance (RADPS) conceptual framework. The convergent parallel mixed method design was employed for data gathering and analysis from randomly selected 292 teachers for the quantitative strand and 12 purposively selected teachers for the qualitative strand. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Beta coefficient tests) were used to analyse quantitative data and ATLAS ti. 8 generated quotations and networks that summarised the narrative views of teachers on the timing of introducing the performance evaluation system. The ANOVA result (0.000) indicated that there was a significant relationship between the timing of introducing performance evaluation and its effectiveness and the Beta coefficient value (0.213) indicated a strong influence of timing of introduction on effectiveness of performance evaluation.&nbsp; The quantitative results were corroborated by findings from interviews, which indicated that the system had been imposed, had inadequate budgetary support, no piloting prior to implementation, inadequate pre-implementation training and marketing. These resultantly led to limited buy-in by stakeholders and a negative impact on the effectiveness of the whole performance evaluation system.&nbsp; Based on the findings, we concluded that due to its mistimed introduction, the performance evaluation system was ineffective in achieving its educational objectives in the Zimbabwean district where the study was conducted.</p> Belinda R. Musodza Tawanda Runhare Mamotena Mpeta Elphinah N. Cishe Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 18 18 10.36941/ajis-2020-0108 Partnership in Communities of Practice Towards Teachers’ Professional Development https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12283 <p>This study examined how partnership with international agencies, non-governmental organisations and experts from higher institutions of learning assist teachers’ in communities of learning towards their professional development. Mixed methods and concurrent triangulation research designs were adopted for this study. Seventy-nine respondents which comprises of principals, teachers, head of departments, cluster leaders, subject advisers and education district officials were purposively selected. Semi-structured questionnaire which has both open- and closed- ended questions as well as semi-structured interview which has both structured and unstructured interviews were the research instruments used to elicit information from the respondents. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively while quantitative data were analysed thematically from emerging themes. Findings revealed that greater percentage of high schools that participated in the study do not engage in partnership with international agencies, non-governmental organizations and experts from higher institutions in their communities of practice. However, few schools indicated that they enjoyed partnership from these organizations which had helped their teachers towards their professional development. Based on these findings, this study recommends that high school should try to engage in partnership programs especially with universities that are near to their school location to organise trainings, workshops and seminars for their teachers to serve as support measures for their professional development.</p> Adeola Folasade Akinyemi Vuyisile Nkonki Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 34 34 10.36941/ajis-2020-0109 Enhancing Adolescents’ Environmental Responsibility Through Outdoor Recreation Activities https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12284 <p>Spending time outdoors fosters a sense of connectedness and empathy with nature and has a clear effect on attitudes and behaviour towards the environment. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an outdoor activities intervention program on adolescents’ sense of responsibility towards the environment. Participants included 262 adolescents (135 girls and 127 boys) aged 13-17 years who were divided into experimental (n = 141) and control groups (n = 121). The 15-day outdoor intervention program included trekking, mountain biking, orienteering, archery, ropes courses, canoeing on a lake, via ferrata rock climbing, night hiking, and overnight camping. Participants completed an Environmental Responsibility questionnaire (Zafeiroudi &amp; Hatzigeorgiadis, 2013) before and after participation in the activities program. The questionnaire included five scales that focused on perceptions of information on environmental issues, environmental cognitive and affective beliefs, predisposition for environmental action, and environmentally responsible behaviour. Analysis of variance with repeated measures revealed improved scores amongst adolescents who participated in the intervention program, notably within the specific scales used to evaluate perceived information, affective beliefs, predisposition for individual action, and predisposition for encouraging others. A follow-up analysis of covariance revealed that participants in the experimental group scored higher overall than did those in the control group. Taken together, these findings add to the current literature focused on psychosocial and behavioural mechanisms associated with environmental awareness. Our findings also suggest that outdoor recreational activities may be an effective supplement and a more challenging alternative to programs currently provided by environmental and active leisure associations.</p> Aglaia Zafeiroudi Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 43 43 10.36941/ajis-2020-0110 Muslim Minority in Post-war Sri Lanka: A Case Study of Aluthgama and Digana Violences https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12285 <p>Sri Lanka saw an unprecedented degree of anti-Muslim sentiment followed by violence perpetrated by certain extremist elements in recent years. This article primarily examines the implications of anti-Muslim violence that occurred from Aluthgama to Digana and the causes behind the violence. The article shows that anti-Muslim sentiment is manifested in several dimensions: campaigns against Halal, Muslim attire, cattle slaughter, and attacks on mosques and Muslim-owned businesses. This manifestation has resulted in violence against Muslims, causing massive damages to their properties. The study argues that fear of growing Muslim population, economic competition with Muslims, Mahavamsa mentality, and exceptionalism to Buddhist clergies, fear of Islam, and formation of ethnic-based political parties are the causes of anti-Muslim sentiment which later culminated in the form of violence. Therefore, the government needs to enforce law and order equally on all citizens and ensure a policy of multiculturalism and tolerance is strictly maintained.</p> Mohamed Anifa Mohamed Fowsar Mohamed Abdulla Mohamed Rameez Aboobacker Rameez Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 56 56 10.36941/ajis-2020-0111 Maintaining Ethnicity and Social Networks: Engkor Lorgow, Lion, Dragon Dance, Performing Arts of the Chinese Ethnic Group in Udonthani Province https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12286 <p>The research titled “Maintaining Ethnicity and Social Networks: Engkor Lorgow, Lion, Dragon Dance Performing Arts of the Chinese Ethnic Group in Udonthani Province” was qualitative research that emphasized on investigated and collected data from the field study, document, and related research and presented in descriptive analysis, particularly at Thung Si Muang Annual Festival in 2018. The objectives of the study consisted of three criteria: 1) to study of the development of the Chinese ethnic group in Udonthani, 2) to analyze the role of the Engkor Lorgow, Lion, Dragon Dance Performing Arts in maintaining ethnicity and social network of Chinese ethnic group in Udonthani, and 3) to analyze how the culture of Engkor Lorgow, Lion, Dragon Dance Performing Arts helped created social group between Chinese ethnic group and the local people in Udonthani. The study results found that the Engkor Lorgow, Lion, Dragon Dance was part of the ritual at Chao Pu-Ya shrine. The Chinese ethnic group worked together on the ceremony by holding the Chinese Opera to show the belief and faith of traditional Chinese culture and to gather all Chinese together to maintain their ethnicity and create social networks with one another. Chinese Operas were held annually in Thung Si Muang, Udonthani province, Thailand, and had adapted the Engkor Lorgow, Lion, Dragon Dance to be more spectacular and fit in with social contexts in Udonthani. The dance was promoted to be one of the provincial identities and played an important role in tourism in Udonthani. Thus, the Engkor Lorgow, Lion, Dragon Dance has been a ritual that helped assemble and created social networks between the Chinese ethnic group and other ethnic groups in Udonthani province.</p> Chiraphan Ieamkaew Supachai Singyabuth Ourarom Chantamala Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 69 69 10.36941/ajis-2020-0112 The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment by Economic Activity on Gross Domestic Product Growth in Kosovo https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12287 <p>The effects of the foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic growth, both in developed and non-developed countries, have been investigated for decades. In Kosovo's new economy, the FDI's presence is essential for economic and social development. This study aims to examine the impact of FDI by economic activities, known as "high-level aggregation," on the gross domestic product (GDP) growth for the period 2010-2019. The multiple regression is used to analyze the strength and direction of the FDI's impact on the GDP. The results show that FDI in the activities belonging to the primary sector has negatively impacted the GDP. In contrast, the FDI in activities of the secondary sector indicates a positive impact. Concerning the tertiary sector, the result differs among the types of activities. The FDI in real estate, renting, and business activities have a positive impact on GDP. Also, the FDI in public administration, education, human health, and social work activities has a substantial impact on GDP growth. The other FDIs belonging to the tertiary sector showed adverse impacts. So, the findings suggest that in a new economy, the FDI in activities that are more apt to induce positive externalities has more potential to increase the GDP in the long run. Otherwise, the impact may be low or adverse.</p> Florije Govori Amant Fejzullahu Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 78 78 10.36941/ajis-2020-0113 Trade and Economic Cooperation of BRICS: Problems and Prospects https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12288 <p>The subject of this study is the legal and financial features of the BRICS trade and economic cooperation and the practice of their application in modern conditions.&nbsp; The purpose of this article is to identify problems that impede the effective development of economic relations and put forward proposals for their improvement.&nbsp; The study showed that the BRICS countries have significant reserves for multilateral cooperation and support of trade and economic relations.&nbsp; In this regard, harmonization of trade and economic relations of partner countries is necessary, in order to solve strategic problems and improve the living standards of the population.&nbsp; It is shown that simplifying the access of entrepreneurs to credit, tax incentives for exporters of industrial goods, flexible conditions for direct and indirect financing of projects and programs, expanding the participation of BRICS development banks and institutional investors contributes to the progressive development of national economies and improving trade and economic relations of BRICS. For research purposes, IBOV INDEX (Brazil), CRTX INDEX (Russia), SENSEX INDEX (India), SHCOMP INDEX (China), JALSH INDEX (South Africa) and Bloomberg platform (WEI, DES, GP, XLTP XCIT, MEMB) materials were used. Evaluation of data in key sectors of the BRICS economies showed the existence of interconnectedness and interdependence of the BRICS trading floor indices - sources of direct financing for trade and economic cooperation of partner countries.&nbsp; Correlation analysis and cointegration of time series confirmed a solid foundation for stimulating multilateral cooperation of the BRICS, including on the basis of interstate support for business entities and expanding the participation of institutional investors in ensuring sustainable development of the BRICS. It is concluded that the results of the study can be used in developing measures of interstate support for trade and economic cooperation of BRICS in modern conditions.</p> I. Z. Yarygina A. V. Zhiglyaeva O. V. Vershinina Yu. A. Kuvshinova Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 89 89 10.36941/ajis-2020-0114 Discourse on Social Media Use and Reading Culture of Nigerian Youths https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12289 <p>There is a growing public concern over the perceived decline in the reading culture of youths in Nigeria. A wider section of analysts strongly insinuate that the increasing use of social media and other new media technologies is the most significant cause of this social ill; hence, emphasis has been placed on how to control the use of online platforms principally for social interaction in Nigeria. This study examines the nature of relationship between social media use and the reading culture of Nigerian youths. Using a survey of 1,000 youths selected from Nigeria’s South-south geopolitical zone through a multistage sampling technique, the study found that 94.3% of the respondents use the social media and there is a generally poor culture of reading among young Nigerians. Contrary to popular opinion however, the study found a weak and insignificant relationship between social media use and reading culture (rho = 0.241, p&gt; 0.05). Nevertheless, reading culture tended to be positively and significantly associated with certain demographic variables such as sex (.787**), education (.731**) and employment status (.654**). The study recommends the urgent reinvigoration of societal campaigns aimed at improving the reading culture of youths through the provision of a favourable socio-economic environment that encourages people to read.</p> Majority Oji Joshua A. Erubami Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 105 105 10.36941/ajis-2020-0115 Covid-19 and the Tourism Industry: Critical Overview, Lessons and Policy Options https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12290 <p>Coronavirus pandemic has enormous impacts on the entire socio-economic structure of countries worldwide. It accounts for the epileptic service delivery of many enterprises globally. The pandemic has massive consequences that have to reshape the present and future landscape of the tourism industry. Thus, this paper critically examines the impact of nCOV on the aviation, cruise-shipping, and hospitality components of the tourism industry. It investigates why the tourism industry is the first and the most hit sector by Covid-19. In light of these, the paper provides an in-depth discussion on how Covid-19 affects jobs, man-hours, revenue, income, and livelihood of workers, as well as owners of the tourism industry. Discussions were also channelled on how the impacts of the pandemic on the tourism industry affect global GDP and foreign exchange earnings of countries whose economy relays significantly on tourism. The study concluded that with the prolonged lockdown, the tourism industry would continue to experience a large slide down. The paper posits that urgent policy remediation is necessary to revamp the sector and rescue it from imminent collapse and extinct.</p> Stephen I. Ocheni A. M. Ogaboh Agba Michael Sunday Agba F. O. Eteng Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 114 114 10.36941/ajis-2020-0116 Strategic Management in the Hotel Industry: Proposed Strategic Practices to Recover from COVID- 19 Global Crisis https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12291 <p>Hotel companies operate in a highly competitive environment, targeting much clientele from the international market with many specialties. The management in these too demanding conditions is called upon to apply modern strategic management practices by analyzing global developments and supporting the decision-making process by limiting the uncertainty created by the external environment. In this context, it is imperative to analyze the financial and administrative impact of COVID- 19, which strongly threatens tourist traffic and largely overturning current budget estimations. Strategic management can make a decisive contribution to addressing this threat by adopting the established business strategy. This article is based on similar past crises, as they were faced with strategic tools. This work aims to discuss and present the most appropriate recovery management strategies, which can help the hotel industry respond to this unprecedented crisis.</p> Belias Dimitrios Papademetriou Christos Rossidis Ioannis Labros Vasiliadis Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 130 130 10.36941/ajis-2020-0117 Implementation of Intellectual Property Right to Strengthen Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Business Capacity in Global Competition https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12292 <p>This study aims to analyze the role of MSMEs in the Indonesian economy and the implementation of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in protecting Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). Qualitative analysis is done by interpreting the data collected from library studies with the aim of solving research problems. The result showed that the protection of IPR in MSMEs can increase its business capacity and be able to compete in global competition, because goods and services have exclusive rights and economic rights. With the protection of IPR, stakeholders will strengthen MSMEs and participate in developing the MSME capacity. The banks can provide credit loans with collateral for IPR assets owned by MSMEs.</p> Suparji Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 139 139 10.36941/ajis-2020-0118 Influencing Factors of Audit Report Lag: Evidence from Indonesia https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12293 <p>This study intends to reveal the influence of firm size, profitability, solvability, and size of the public accounting firm on audit report lag (ARL). The object of this research is mining firms listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) for the 2015-2018 period. Samples were chosen by purposive sampling method, uses secondary data with 96 samples, and applies multiple linear regression for data analysis. The finding of this research indicates that the solvability and size of public accounting firms influence the ARL. However, firms' size and profitability don't influence the ARL. The implication of the finding is issuers should pay attention to factors that affect ARL so that issuers are not subject to sanctions due to delays in the submission of audit reports from Financial Services Authority (OJK).</p> Zaky Machmuddah Adhin Fauziah Iriani St. Dwiarso Utomo Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 148 148 10.36941/ajis-2020-0119 Overcoming Barriers in Intercultural Communication: A Case Study on Agricultural Idioms in English, Ukrainian and Chinese https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12294 <p>The paper deals with the case study, focused on exploring certain problems in intercultural communication of Ukrainian and Chinese students in the academic environment of Sumy National Agrarian University. The participants of the ethnographic-linguistic stage of the experiment learned, interpreted and compared the phraseological funds of the Chinese, Ukrainian and English languages, displaying the conceptual sphere “Agriculture”, in order to find out similarities and divarications in the outlook of people, engaged in agricultural production, as well as the perception of agricultural sphere in these cultural-ethnic communities. The qualitative stage of the experiment was conducted to discover the stereotypes about the representatives of other nations, which the informants had. It was revealed that learning idioms and participation in the experiment helped students overcome the stereotypes and improve the intercultural interaction amid academic groups. It was concluded that the students, who learned the target language idioms, belonging to the conceptual sphere “Agriculture”, gained knowledge of the geographical and economic conditions, moral values and traditions of the target language native speakers, became aware of the analogies in their own background. Thus, the participants realised that they could eliminate obstacles that impeded intercultural communication by mastering culturally marked target language material concerning the sphere of their future professional activity.</p> Tatiana Fomenko Marina Bilotserkovets Tetiana Klochkova Olena Statsenko Alina Sbruieva Olena Kozlova Dmytro Kozlov Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 157 157 10.36941/ajis-2020-0120 Legal Framework on Prevention of Extremism in Malaysia https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12295 <p>The world is now facing phenomenon of violent extremism that threatens universal safety and security. The United Nations (UN) is against violent extremism and urges Member States to prevent violent extremism in their respective countries. In this context, Malaysia as one of the Member States under the UN is also required to take an initiative towards preventing violent extremism in the country. The pertinent question is, what is meant by violent extremism? Does violent extremism only focus on Islam? These questions need to be answered first before the government begins its initiative in preventing violent extremism in the country. Without a clear interpretation of the law, extremism cannot be effectively prevented and miscarriage of justice may occur. Therefore, this article intends to address the available legal framework on prevention of extremism in Malaysia. Before venturing into the Malaysia’s legal framework on prevention of extremism, this article will give an overview of the international framework on prevention of extremism. In achieving the objective of this article, the authors used qualitative approach with content analysis method. The article found that Malaysia has many legislations which act as preventive laws, but none of legislations define extremism.</p> Ramalinggam Rajamanickam Tengku Noor Azira Tengku Zainudin Balaji Thinakaran Mohd Safri Mohammed Na’aim Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 167 167 10.36941/ajis-2020-0121 The Impact of Using Code Alternation in Teaching Life Science to English First Additional Language learners in South African Schools https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12296 <p>The study aimed at investigating the extent to which English is used as a medium of teaching and learning Life Sciences in a South African rural high school. As the government has given recognition to the country’s multilingual, multi-ethnic and multicultural composition, School Governing Bodies are mandated to choose any of the eleven official languages as a medium of instruction (RSA, Act 108 of 1996), but the power of deciding which language to use as a medium of instruction has been taken by teachers to shield their own shortcomings. To be able to explore and understand the prevailing situation, the researchers employed a qualitative design which translated into researchers observing classes, evaluating learners’ written texts and interviewing the teachers as methods of collecting data. The findings are that: first, learners’ and teachers’ proficiency levels in English are very low, as such, the English language is not a pivot of learning and teaching in the South African education system. This emanates from the fact that although in theory the majority of the South African schools have adopted English as a medium of instruction, in practice, this is far from the truth as teachers employ code alternation in the form of code switching, code mixing and sentence translation as viable means of scaffolding the learning of content subjects.</p> Mzamani Johannes Maluleke Ernest Kwesi Klu Vincent N. Demana Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 175 175 10.36941/ajis-2020-0122 The Principle of Sovereignty as the Main Principle of Democracy, between the Political Pluralism and the Electoral System in the Parlamentary Republic of Albania https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12297 <p>Popular sovereignty is the foundation of the principle of democracy for the existence and functioning of the rule of law. In the Parliamentary Republic of Albania based on political pluralism for nearly three decades, this essential element of the democratic principle seems to be as fragile as the principle itself. The basic concept of the functionality of the rule of law in Albania under the Constitution is the separation and balancing of powers. Although the constitutional provision for the separation and balancing of powers is clear and based on Montesquieu’s conception of the development of the principle of democracy and the prohibition of abuse that each of the powers could inflict on each other, the separation and balancing of powers in Albania seems to be impossible. Albania as a country with a culture of not very long political pluralism, instead it comes from a rather long-term mono-party system where the development of the electoral process was more of a holiday than a race. However, the sovereignty of the people enshrined in today's constitution and yesterday's constitution seems more like a slogan than a fundamental principle of constitutional order. In these years of political pluralism between the test of many electoral systems coupled with constitutional and legal changes, the implementation of the principle of popular sovereignty to consolidate the democratic principle remains clearly a utopia for Albanian society. After each election process debates reopen the need for reforming the electoral system in general and managing the process in particular. The purpose of this paper through a comparative analysis is to identify the elements that impede the observance of the fundamental constitutional principle of popular sovereignty either directly or indirectly through elected representatives to consolidate the rule oflaw in Albania.</p> Ismail Tafani Darjel Sina Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 184 184 10.36941/ajis-2020-0123 The Impact of Discretionary Accruals on Corporate Investment Decisions: Evidence from GCC Countries https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12298 <p>The aim of the article is to examine the relationship between the level of discretionary accruals and corporate investment decisions by using the data of listed production firms from six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries for the period 2009-2015. We firstly generated discretionary accruals using performance adjusted model introduced by Kothari, et al. (2005). Secondly, we constructed six models to see the relationship between discretionary accruals and investment decisions. To control for country and time effects, we added GDP growth rates of countries as a macroeconomic indicator in all models. Our findings reveal a weak emphasis of discretionary accruals on two dependent variables. Mean accruals are negative for all years and for all countries, and it shows that companies tend to engage in earnings management practices in order to understate income. The use of PPE as an indicator of investment rates for companies provide more precise results than the use of total assets.</p> Goksel Acar Ilker Yilmaz Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 193 193 10.36941/ajis-2020-0124 Human Rights Concerns in Indonesia’s Counterterrorism Policies: The Emergence of a Domestic Security Dilemma in Indonesia’s Densus 88 Security Posture https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12299 <p>The counterterrorism policies of Indonesia have led the community to perceive the government as both protectors of human rights, but fear possible oppressions at the same time. The recorded figures of human rights violations, including extrajudicial killings, torture, and the dismissal of legal rights for individuals suspected as terrorists, have led to the construction of fear and insecurity among the Indonesian people of the state’s approach to counterterrorism. Employing the concept of ‘Domestic Security Dilemma’ developed by Field in 2016, this article argues that; (1) Detachment 88’s coercive methods in counterterrorism have led to human rights oppression and the construction of fear and insecurity among Indonesian citizens, and (2) the emergence of a ‘Domestic Security Dilemma’ due to the growing discourse of Detachment 88’s dismissal initiated by individuals and Islamic community organization in Indonesia.</p> Bama Andika Putra Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 206 206 10.36941/ajis-2020-0125 Awareness about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) among Parents of Typically Developing Children https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12300 <p>Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder common among children. Special attention is frequently given to the early detection of ASD for early treatment implementation, which improves these children’s outcomes. Enhanced public awareness is necessary to prevent delays in the provision of such services by aiding the early identification of cases. There is a lack of studies that determine ASD awareness among parents of typically developing children (TDC). Therefore, the aim of this study was to comprehend the extent of ASD awareness and knowledge among Saudi parents of TDC. A cross-sectional descriptive survey using a questionnaire was distributed to survey 232 Saudi parents’ (98 female, 134 male) ASD awareness and knowledge. Overall, this study’s results showed that ASD awareness among Saudi parents is good, as the study participants were knowledgeable about its aetiology, signs and symptoms. However, there are still misconceptions and lacking of knowledge that need to be addressed. Interestingly, the fathers were found to be more knowledgeable about general ASD information and aetiology than the mothers. The findings showed that around 49.1% of Saudi parents do not know if vaccinations cause ASD, which indicates lacking awareness in this regard. Despite the efforts of different sectors to raise ASD awareness in the KSA, more work needs to be done to address misconceptions among parents. This is necessary to aiding the early detection and identification of ASD, which will expedite services’ provision for better outcomes for children with ASD.</p> Alyaa Hemdi Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 214 214 10.36941/ajis-2020-0126 Determining Strategy to Improve Human Resources Performance by Identifying Tourism Condition SMEs https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12301 <p>This study aims to identify the internal and external conditions of the small and medium entreprises tourism sector in cities in East Java. Also, this study aims to determine the most appropriate strategy to improve the performance of small and medium entreprises human resources in the tourism sector. Respondents used as research samples of 100 respondents divided from 20 small and medium entreprises taken in each city. Furthermore, in each small and medium entreprises, five employees were selected as respondents. The data were analyzed using the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats method. The results of the study showed that the tourism small and medium entreprises in the City of Blitar, Malang, Batu, and Kediri were in healthy condition and had great opportunities to grow and develop. Besides, the tourism sector small and medium entreprises in Pasuruan City is in a healthy condition but faces enormous threats. Eventually, the originality of this research focuses on the tourism sector in East Java, Indonesia, which has not been much study before.</p> Adya Hermawati Choirul Anam Suhermin Suhermin Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 228 228 10.36941/ajis-2020-0127 Risks of Social Communications of Public Administrative Bodies with Regard to Manifestations of Corruption https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12302 <p>The article has analyzed reasons and the current state of corruption risks in the system of social communications of public administrative bodies. The aim of the study is to identify and analyze corruption risks in the system of public communication to eliminate the causes and terms of their emerging. The article is of an overview nature, and it is prepared based on the approach of the content analysis of scientific literature on the topic, analytical reports of international organizations, international projects, the authors’ analysis of sites and information portals of public authorities, and vectors of public information policy. A significant potential of corruption to destroy the trust in public institutions has been emphasized. This process will tend to weaken the state’s ability to fight against corruption. By using the methodological approach “agent – patron” (agent’s dilemma), it has been proved that a substantial increase in corruption processes causes considerable changes in the institutional design of public organizations. It is transforming the nature of the entire public administration system in the direction far from the public interest. This state of affairs demands the scientific community to develop theoretical and practical works offering a modern approach to the problem of countering corruption and, in particular, its institutional forms and mechanisms. The dynamics of corruption connections and relations distort the institutional design in the system of public administration, destroying effective social communications, decreasing a general level of citizens’ trust in power structures, contributing to the concentration of financial and economic assets in a very limited part of the society. The developed e-government has a great potential for countering corruption threats in general, provided the high level of information and communication competency of public authorities, and the developed information competency of citizens. Generalization of the work will be useful for public authorities during implementation processes of the comprehensive system of activities directed at prevention and fighting against corruption and planning while anti-corruption reform implementation, delivery of legal, social, economic, organizational, managerial, and practical activities aiming at corruption prevention through improvement and the further development of social communication in the public sector.</p> Anatolii N. Balashov Andrii M. Lyseiuk Ivan I. Bashta Anastasiia D. Shtelmashenko Andrii V. Mykoliuk Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 239 239 10.36941/ajis-2020-0128 Effects of ICT in Albanian Tourism Business https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12303 <p>The digitalisation in the manufacturing and industrial sectors has been fast ‘exported’ in tourism industry as well. The technological revolution has highly affected both the supplier and the consumer of tourism products and services. There is recently an increasing attention from the industry and academia in order to highlight the challenges of ICT use in tourism and the drivers of “smart tourism” in world level. Our study joins these efforts with the goal to observe the use of information and communication technologies in Albanian tourism and detect the elements of smart tourism in it. The survey and interviews with a sample of experienced medium size tourism companies were used to assess the expansion of ICT in their overall activity. The data collected and processed did enable to point out the penetration of digital technologies in Albanian tourism. Further on, some features of smart tourism are highlighted and some drivers of digitalization in Albanian tourism are brought to the attention of stakeholder groups.</p> Ira Gjika Nikollaq Pano Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 252 252 10.36941/ajis-2020-0129 Psychological Aspects of Corruption in Public Administration: Case-Study of Ukraine https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12304 <p>The purpose of this research was to explore the psychological aspects of corruption in public administration through a combination of methods such as the non-systematic review, a semi-structured interview, a survey questionnaire, and observations of the anti-corruption court hearings. The study employed a case research design using the exploratory research strategy. It relied on a combination of data collection methods. The study was designed as a flow of three basic stages such as identification of psychological factors of corruption, validation of factors, and assessment of relative importance of every factor using the Triangular Assessment Method. It provided first-hand evidence and cases for the course in “Psychological, Behavioural and Economic Triggers of Corruption.” The IBM SPSS Statistics 25.0.0.1. Software was used to process the yielded data. The study found that civil servants’ ambitions to get rich quick, their low self-esteem, psychological dependencies, community-accepted image, sense of impunity were the major psychological aspects pushing the people to corruption in Ukraine. It was also found that the sense of impunity could be considered to be the primary psychological impact factor stimulating corruption actions by the civil servants, specifically. The self-esteem could be regarded as a second important psychological factor of corruption in public administration, which is related to the persons’ vision of their role in the community. The third important factor was ambitions driven by ‘easy money’ and status. The last two factors such as psychological dependencies, the community-accepted image were judged to be the least important ones. Further in-depth research is needed to identify the gender difference in the psychological aspects of corruption in public administration.</p> Olena V. Dragan Ganna S. Yermakova Andrii M. Chvaliuk Oleg G. Kurchin Oleg V. Karagodin Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 264 264 10.36941/ajis-2020-0130 Trying to Deteriorate an Attraction Effect: A Lesson for Challengers https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12305 <p>The study is designed to answer a question: Can competitors override the effect of attraction that a particular firm’s product has been experiencing? The study demonstrates that sale promotions, particularly discount and rebate, could lead to the alteration of attitude. Data are analyzed by employing Amos 22.0 and SPSS 21.0. The findings are not far from the expectation, that after the promotion of the competitor’s product, the attraction effect is no longer remaining. The customers’ intention to buy the product promoted obviously increases. In addition, hypotheses relating with attraction effect and theory of planned behavior are supported.</p> MS. Eric Santosa Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 278 278 10.36941/ajis-2020-0131 Accommodating Minorities into Sri Lanka’s Post-Civil War State System: Government Initiatives and Their Failure https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/12306 <p>Many observers view the defeat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in May 2009 as a significant turning point in the protracted ethnic conflict that was troubling Sri Lanka. The armed struggle and the consequences of war have encouraged the state and society to address the group rights of ethnic minorities and move forward towards state reconstitution. The Tamil minority and international community expect that the Government of Sri Lanka (GOSL) must introduce inclusive policies as a solution to the ethnic conflict. They believe the state should take measures to avoid another major contestation through the lessons learned from the civil war. The study is a qualitative analysis based on text analysis. In this backdrop, this paper examines the attempts made for the inclusion of minorities into the state system in post-civil war Sri Lanka, which would contribute to finding a resolution to the ethnic conflict. The study reveals that numerous attempts were made at various periods to introduce inclusive policies to achieve state reconstitution, but those initiatives failed to deliver sustainable peace. The study also explores problems pertaining to contemporary policy attempts.</p> Mansoor Mohamed Fazil Mohamed Anifa Mohamed Fowsar Vimalasiri Kamalasiri Thaharadeen Fathima Sajeetha Mohamed Bazeer Safna Sakki Copyright (c) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 6 290 290 10.36941/ajis-2020-0132