A Comparative Study of the Story of Esfandiar in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh and Achilles in Homer's Iliad
AbstractEpic is a kind of descriptive poem which is based on describing heroic and manhood actions and prides of a nation or person so that it includes different symbols of their life.Iliad and Odysses of Homerus, Ramayana and Mehabeharatay of Indians and Shahnameh of Ferdowsi are three great epics of the world.These three epic works are related to Aryan race which has been divided into different branches and everyone has been settled in a land and this is why that there are some common characteristics between them. As epic of every nation is a mirror that shows their culture, nature and endogenous life, these relations and coordination of two Iranian and Greek epics, Shahnameh and Iliad and Odysses show proximity of the two nations in mirror of history. .Shahnameh has been divided into three mythological, heroic and historical parts Iliad and Odysses has been also composed by Homerus, famous Greek poet. Iliad book includes explanation of ten years war between Greece and Troas in 24 chapters and Odysses, which has 24 poems, is about Olis, one of heroes of Troas war and figures his braveries. These two great epics which show two known old culture, can be compared from different characteristics. There are many behavioral likenesses in view of individual, social relationships and acquaintance with different kinds of their natures in addition to structural likenesses. Existence of heroes such as Esfandiyar and Achilles, greedy and chimerical kings such as Keykavoos and Agamemnon, experienced masters such as Piran and Odysses, beautiful and sly women such as Soodabeh and Helen and devotedand portentous teenagers such as Bahram and Patrocelos, all show much likeness of these two epics. As one of important elements of epic texts is heroic element and Esfandiyar and Achilles are two considered heroes in shahnameh and Iliad and their life is similar to each other and both are invulnerable heroes of Iran and Greece who their bravery determined fate of two nations, we decided to introduce story of Esfandiyar and Achilles after defining epic and its elements and introducing Shahnameh of Ferdowsi and Iliad of Homerus and explaining likeness of them and explain likeness and difference between these two story while figuring bravery of this two invulnerable heroes of Iran and Greece.
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