Factors Influencing the Principal's Leadership and Its Impact on Learning Quality and Learning Outcome
This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence the variables of Leadership Training (TL), Work Experience (WE), and Student Achievement (LA) in terms of Principal Leadership (PL), and their impact on Learning Quality (LQ) and Learning Outcomes ( LO). The research sample was 120 teachers from six State-level high schools that were categorized as well in three provinces. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and focus group discussions. Specifically, the questionnaire was first tested to determine the level of validity and reliability using the Pearson and Cronbach Alpha product moment test criteria. The study uses structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses. The results show that TL, WE, and LA have positive effects on PL, whereas PL has positive effects on LQ and LO, and LQ has a positive effect on LO. It is recommended that the selection and the recruitment of principal be necessary to consider these variables, in particular the implementation of leadership training and funding assistance to participate in the principal's professional organization. Efforts to develop leadership knowledge and skills need to emphasize the importance of decision-making and risk in school management to make change and progress in the school, increase staff openness and involvement in decision making, open access to school education, and build collaborative relationships within and outside the school.
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