Tourism and Cultural Interaction: A Paradoxical Relationship


  • Jorge Ferraz Interdisciplinary Centre of Social Sciences—CICS.NOVA, 1069-061 Lisbon, Portugal; Estoril Higher Institute for Tourism and Hotel Studies, 2769-510 Estoril, Portugal; CITUR-Centre for Research in Tourism, Estoril Campus, 2769-510 Estoril, Portugal
  • Sandro Serpa Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, University of the Azores, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, the Azores, Portugal; Interdisciplinary Centre of Social Sciences—CICS.UAc/CICS.NOVA.UAc, University of the Azores, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, the Azores, Portugal Interdisciplinary Centre for Childhood and Adolescence—NICA—UAc, University of the Azores, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, the Azores, Portugal



Tourism, monoculturalism, multiculturalism, interculturalism, dignity, paradoxical relationship, recognition


The objective of this paper is to discuss and contribute to the understanding of the relationship between tourism and cultural interaction, as well as the relationship between people of different cultural backgrounds in tourist context. The interaction between cultures framed by an ideal intercultural communication is frequently the center of a tourism discourse, promoting a possible heavenly world brought by tourism. This paper argues that its relationship is, by definition, problematic because of the complexities of the tourism and the cultural phenomena, clearly shown on the contemporary social and scientific debate about monoculturalism, multiculturalism and interculturalism, and the problems and paradoxes it entails. The discourses of international organizations on the specific subjects of cultural issues and relationships, having in mind their institutional roles, also reflect, in their choices and silences, the complexity of the subject. The main conclusion of this piece of research is that such a relationship is inescapably complex, and sometimes paradoxical and contradictory or irreducible due to the complex natures of tourism and intercultural communication themselves.


Received: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 2 March 2021 / Published: 10 May 2021


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How to Cite

Ferraz, J. ., & Serpa, S. . (2021). Tourism and Cultural Interaction: A Paradoxical Relationship. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 11(3), 39.




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