Higher Education in Albania Based on Harmonized Indicators of Gender Equality and the Status of Women
AbstractHigher education is a field in which there have been good achievements in terms of access for women and girls. Education is one of the values that have traditionally been evaluated by the Albanian society. The high level of education of women and girls in Albania shows that they are successful, and that education is important in achieving a higher status in the family and in society. Education is recognized worldwide as an important indicator of social and economic development of a society. The statistical data according to INSTAT pubications on “Women and men in Albania” as well as the official data of the Ministry of Education and Sport indicate that women are more successful than men in a substantial number of gender indices about education in Albania. Although women constitute the greatest number of graduadions in all levels of education and give a valuable contribution in the field of education, their social and economic status leaves much to be desired. This research aims to identify and analyze gender differences in education and their development tendencies, with an emphasis on academic achievements, through secondary analysis of statistical data in the education sector based on harmonized indicators of gender equality and women's status in Albania, findings from the analysis, evaluation reports and on national studies in this field. The national Group of Harmonized Gender Indicators, approved by the Government of Albania in 2010, is the official instrument to monitor the progress for the implementation of national and international commitments toward gender equality and women's human rights. In this article are analyzed and discussed the findings from the analysis of the three most important indicators of gender regarding higher education, respectively the indicators which refer to "Graduated students in public and private institutions of higher education in general”, “Graduated students in public and private institutions of higher education according to fields of study and type of diploma" and the indicator which refers to "Scientific-teaching staff according to titles and degrees in public and private institutions of higher education". The career and academic achievements still remains a male-dominated field in Albania. The percentage of women involved in career and academic achievements continues to be very low and this figure is attributed to gender inequality in terms of attendance and benefit from higher levels of education. Academic women and girls perceive themselves as a minority group, in an environment completely dominated by men.
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