Knowledge Level and Incidence of Sexual Harassment in Sports: Views of Ghanaian Female University Athletes
AbstractThis paper is the first part of a study that investigated the issue of sexual harassment in university sports in Ghana. Specifically this paper sought to find out female university athletes’ views on knowledge of sexual harassment and their experiences of it. Descriptive survey research design was used to conduct the study. Purposive sampling technique was employed to select One Hundred and Sixty-Seven (167) female respondents for the study. The instrument used in gathering data was a questionnaire titled “Questionnaire on Sexual Harassment Against Female University Athletes in Ghana (QSHAFUAGH)” structured and developed by the researchers. The QSHAFUAGH was validated by two jurors in the field of physical education and sport, from Ghana and Nigeria and was tested for reliability using Split-half method. A reliability correlation coefficient of .91r was obtained from the reliability testing. In all, one research question and two research hypotheses were formulated, answered and tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance. Data collected were analyzed using percentages and chi-square (x2) statistical method. The findings from the study showed that; sexual harassment against female university athletes is relatively high in Ghana; female university athletes are highly knowledgeable on what constitutes sexual harassment; and the mass media is the leading source of information on sexual harassment among female athletes. Based on these findings, the study recommends that: the focus of sexual harassment education should shift from knowledge to empowerment; management of the various universities should provide the right environment, avenues or channels for female athletes to report acts of harassment perpetrated against them in the course of their participation in sports on campus without fear of victimization; and some sanctions should be instituted by management of the various universities and GUSA on perpetrators of sexual harassment against female university athletes.
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