Measuring Social Exclusion: a Study from Turkey


  • Nuran Bayram Department of Econometrics, Bursa Turkey
  • Serpil Aytac Department of Labor Economics and Industrial Relations, Bursa Turkey
  • Mustafa Aytac Department of Econometrics Bursa Turkey
  • Neslihan Sam Department of Public Administration, Bursa Turkey
  • Nazan Bilgel Department of Family Medicine, Bursa Turkey


In this study we aimed to assess the feelings of social exclusion in a Turkish community. We used the Social Exclusion Scale
developed by Jehoel-Gijsbers & Vrooman. A total of 2493 volunteer participants were included in the study. We found that the feeling
of social exclusion diminishes as people become older, and the length of residency in the city increases. Married people feel themselves less
socially excluded than those who are divorced or widowed. Illiterate people feel themselves 4.4 times more socially excluded than those with
university degrees. People with a low economic level feel themselves 10.6 times more socially excluded than those at with a high economic
level. People who do not own a home feel themselves 1.6 times more socially excluded than those with home ownership. In conclusion,
25.0% of our study participants felt themselves socially excluded. We hope our research will provide an opening for further studies in


Download data is not yet available.




How to Cite

Bayram, N. ., Aytac, S. ., Aytac, M. ., Sam, N. ., & Bilgel, N. . (2011). Measuring Social Exclusion: a Study from Turkey. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 2(3), 285. Retrieved from