Factors Affecting the Social Exclusion of Eunuchs (Hijras) in Pakistan


  • UmairAhmed
  • GhulamYasin
  • AsadUmair


This study investigates the role of Sociological factors in exclusion of eunuchs from the main stream of Pakistani society. The nature of study is quantitative and the samples of 223 respondents were selected from three major cities of Punjab Province i.e. Lahore, Rawalpindi and Multan by proportionate sampling. The researcher selected 20% sample from each Dara (community) of eunuch, identified 5 key informants and approached respondents through them. Interview schedule was the tool and data was analyzed through chi Square. Collected data showed that the majority of Eunuchs are socially, culturally, politically and economically discriminated and they are being physically, verbally, and sexually abused. Extreme social exclusion weakens their self-esteem and sense of social responsibility. They are known as ‘abnormal’ and ultimately become ‘marginalized’, and finally because of standing at the lowest level in a hierarchical social system, their access to resources and services remain restricted. Results concluded that the socio-cultural, economical and political aspects are closely linked, exerting a collective exclusionary force in the lives of Eunuch. The deprivations, alienation, and hostilities encountered by Eunuchs since early childhood are so deep and extreme that, at some point, finding no other social space, they exclude themselves.

DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n23p2277


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How to Cite

Ahmed, U., Yasin, G., & Umair, A. (2014). Factors Affecting the Social Exclusion of Eunuchs (Hijras) in Pakistan. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(23), 2277. Retrieved from https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/4782