Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/mjss <p>Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences publishes six issues per year in January, March, May, July, September and November. MJSS has been published from January 2017 to September 2019 by Sciendo DeGruyter now acquired from Richtmann. For submissions use the online system or send your manuscript by email to: mjss@richtmann.org</p> Richtmann Publishing en-US Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 2039-9340 <p><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p> <p>This work is licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>.</p> French Motorcyclists and the 80 km/hr Speed Limit: Conditionality and Risk-Taking with Regard to Age, Type and Power of Motorbike https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/12601 <p class="05ABSTRACT"><em>After months of controversy, the speed limit on two-way secondary French roads without a median strip was reduced from 90 to 80 km/hr on 1 July 2018. Thousands of car drivers and motorcyclists have since protested against this measure, and the present study concerned the latter group. Starting from the Theory of Conditionality in the field of social thinking, which holds that prescriptions are massively conditional, a specific questionnaire based on 23 conditional scripts has been devised. A total of 661 male motorcyclists were asked about the conditions justifying the transgression of the 80 km/hr limit. Results showed that those motorcyclists who exceeded this limit did so by at least by 20 km/hr. A personalized assessment of speed, the pleasure associated with driving, and good road and weather conditions were the most conditional situations, while situations linked to the risk of loss of control were the least conditional. This study suggests that the determinants of risk-taking must be studied at the group and context levels, and that behavior is influenced by the system of social norms. Although this system may conflict with the Highway Code, it reflects an adaptation of the group linked to a need for meaning.</em></p> <p class="05ABSTRACT"> </p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">Received: 7 July 2021 / Accepted: 12 August 2021 / Published: 5 September 2021</p> Sandrine Gaymard Teodor Tiplica Anne-Sophie Schvartz Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-05 2021-09-05 12 5 1 1 10.36941/mjss-2021-0039 Corporate Social Responsibility and Accrual-Based Earnings Management: Evidence from Nigeria https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/12602 <p><em>This study examines the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on accrual based-earnings management (AEM) nexus. We employed the use of panel least square analysis to test twenty (20) manufacturing companies quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) for a period of seven (7) years (2013-2019). The study used corporate social responsibility as the independent variable, earnings management as the dependent variable and firm characteristics variables as the control variable. In utilizing the econometric models unreceptive to endogeneity, our result shows that corporate social responsibility has a positive and significant relationship with accrual based-earnings management. In addition, the study finds that firm size and leverage both have a negative and insignificant relationship with accrual based-earning management while profitability has a positive but insignificant relationship with accrual based-earnings management in Nigeria. The results show that more socially responsible firms have higher quality accruals. This suggests that manufacturing firms in Nigeria are likely to engage more in earnings management while increasing their corporate social responsibility. Hence, managers in manufacturing companies in Nigeria, have a tendency to take advantage of corporate social responsibility practices according to the environment they find themselves in.</em></p> <p> </p> <p>Received: 8 July 2021 / Accepted: 8 August 2021 / Published: 5 September 2021</p> Chinwe Claire Amake Obehioye Usiomon Akogo Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-05 2021-09-05 12 5 15 15 10.36941/mjss-2021-0040 Pre-Schoolers’ Parental Concern on Educational Effect of Information and Communication Technology on Children’s Learning https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/12603 <p><em>Technology has been the bread and butter of learning not only among school going children, but also those of pre-schoolers. Its access and usage has become the perennial tool to generate learning. Hence, it comes with the effects of the learning process. This study attempts to investigate the concern of pre-schoolers’ parents regarding the access of Information Communication Technology (ICT) that takes place both in school and at home. This has also become the cause of concern for parents as their children are exposed to its access and usage, conveniently 24/7. To conduct this study, questionnaires were given and duly completed by 10 parents in a small school of eighteen pre-schoolers. These pre-schoolers ranged from the ages of 3 to 6 years old. At these ages, the children have ICT knowledge, at home ranging from leisure games, electronic toys, mobile phones, television, CD, and computers. They have well educated parents with concerns on child computer addiction, health matters and lack of social values. Discussions on the findings focus on the advantages and disadvantages of technology access and usage among the pre-schoolers. They also included the questions on methods of access control or preventive measures to ensure safe ICT use for these pre-schoolers. This study took a qualitative approach as it was suitable to access the respondents’ perception and opinion via questionnaires. The analysis of the study results indicated that ICT had positive impact on education. The concern and setback for parents were the health issues, dark webs, and lack or over socialising. More often it is lack of social mingling.</em></p> <p> </p> <p>Received: 27 June 2021 / Accepted: 9 August 2021 / Published: 5 September 2021</p> Rafiah Kassim Siti Akmar Abu Samah Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-05 2021-09-05 12 5 27 27 10.36941/mjss-2021-0041 Regional Energy Integration for Sustainable Development in Eastern Africa: The Case for Geothermal Energy https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/12604 <p><em>Energy is a crucial factor in international relations and a critical input to achieve global economic growth and development. Provision of affordable, sustainable, and reliable energy is necessary and a prerequisite for any country’s economic growth and prosperity. The United Nations Agenda 2030, through its Seventh Sustainable Development Goal (SGD 7) and the African Union Agenda 2063 Aspiration 1recognise the centrality of access to energy towards realising the ambitions enlisted in these documents. The asymmetric distribution of natural resources and the political, strategic, financial, and technological challenges in utilising these resources hinder countries from availing affordable, sustainable, and reliable energy by using domestic sources alone. The inability to attain energy independence makes a compelling case for nations to increasingly integrate their energy supply chains to international and regional energy markets. As a result, ensuring access to affordable energy has become a core interest of regional foreign relations. Therefore, if geopolitics permits, energy cooperation and interdependence become the ultimate and sustainable path towards energy security. Africa has tremendous potential ranging from hydrocarbons to renewable energies. Nevertheless, it has failed to provide adequate energy for its social and economic needs mainly due to poor governance and related challenges. Africa has to utilise such humongous and diversified energy resources by embracing an optimal energy mix that contributes to regional economic development and energy integration. Eastern Africa, home to various renewable energy resources, is one of the energy-poor regions in Africa. The prevailing energy system in the sub-region is hydro-based and lacks reliability. The sub-region has tremendous renewable energy resources such as wind, solar, and geothermal. Still, their utilisation is negligible due to several challenges, including governance and lack of access to finance and technology. This paper argues that an integrated and regional approach to developing the energy sector in Eastern Africa can address the energy-related challenges and contribute towards regional integration in Eastern Africa. In particular, the development of geothermal energy, within the optimal energy mix in the sub-region, for both power generation and direct use application will play a crucial role in forging energy integration in Eastern Africa. In this regard, regional institutions such as power pools and regional economic communities are indispensable.</em></p> <p> </p> <p>Received: 27 June 2021 / Accepted: 5 August 2021 / Published: 5 September 2021</p> Maria Nzomo Zerubabel Getachew Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-05 2021-09-05 12 5 38 38 10.36941/mjss-2021-0042 The Mediating Role of Emotional Intelligence in Predicting of Self – Efficacy in Mathematical Thinking among Fourth Grade Students in the Sultanate of Oman https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/12605 <p><em>This study aimed to investigate the role of emotional intelligence in predicting self-efficacy in mathematical thinking. The sample consisted of 150 students selected by cluster and sample random techniques from Al-Buraimi governorate. The tools of the study were: Mathematical Thinking Scale developed by the researchers, Self-efficacy Scale for Children (SEQ-C), and Bar-On Emotional Intelligence scale. The results showed a statistically significant correlation between mathematical thinking, self-efficacy, and emotional intelligence. The self-efficacy predicted mathematical thinking when emotional intelligence was a mediator. The variables of sex and the type of school had an impact on the prediction of mathematical thinking. Based on the results, the researchers recommended attention to the development of psychological factors that contribute to the development of mathematical thinking, including self-efficacy and emotional intelligence. They also recommended that further studies be carried out to investigate the role of different psychological traits in mathematical thinking.Contribution/Originality: this study is one of very few studies that investigated to how much extent that self-efficacy predicts mathematical thinking when emotional intelligence plays a mediating role. This investigation was conducted in a new environment.</em></p> <p> </p> <p>Received: 10 June 2021 / Accepted: 10 August 2021 / Published: 5 September 2021</p> Mohammed Al-Kiyumi Amina Alfalasi Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-05 2021-09-05 12 5 49 49 10.36941/mjss-2021-0043 Analyzing Indicators of the Results of Applying Forecasting Methods for Production Plans: A Case Study at the Diyala State Company for Electrical Industries https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/12606 <p><em>Economic organizations operate in a dynamic environment, which necessitates the use of quantitative techniques to make their decisions. Here, the role of forecasting production plans emerges. So, this study aims to analysis of the results of applying forecasting methods to production plans for the past years, in the Diyala State Company for Electrical Industries. The Diyala State Company for Electrical Industries was chosen as a field of research for its role in providing distinguished products as well as the development and growth of its products and quality, and because it produces many products, and the study period was limited to ten years, from 2010 to 2019. This study used the descriptive approach in the theoretical side of the study, on the practical side, the current study used the statistical application (SPSS), and some other statistical means to process and analyze what was collected from data related to the company, the research sample, from its official website. The research concluded that flooding the Iraqi market with alternative imported products for the products of the Electrical Industries Company led to the cessation of production of some of the company's products, as a result, its resources were not invested efficiently and production costs were high. The current study suggested to the Ministry of Electricity to buy the company's products, as these products have a good quality comparing with the foreign ones.</em></p> <p> </p> <p>Received: 10 June 2021 / Accepted: 12 August 2021 / Published: 5 September 2021</p> Emad Khaleel Ismael Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-05 2021-09-05 12 5 61 61 10.36941/mjss-2021-0044 Impacts of Crime on Socio-Economic Development https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/12607 <p class="05ABSTRACT">Crime is as old as man and it exists in every society in respective of its level of development. The rate at which criminals operate unhindered in most societies especially in developing countries around the world is worrisome. Crime creates fear and untold suffering among people. Crime often stands as a barrier to socio-economic growth of society, discourages investment, increases the cost of transactions and ultimately fuel migration which eventually creates economic development disparities around the world. The aim of this study is to analyze the manifestation of crime the world over with a view to intimating government of all countries to have a firm control of all criminal activities in their respective countries for a better society. The approach methodology is based on a literature review of scientific journals and reports. Secondary data were sourced from both published and unpublished works as the study applies descriptive method. The main results showed various manifestations of crimes such as banditry, kidnapping, rape, stealing and murder among others. Therefore, crime fuels corruption and destabilizes development of any society. In conclusion, crime knows no boundary nor personality as it affects people at all levels. This sad activity will continue to be a major factor of lack of socio-economic development if no strong action is taken by governments to effectively tackle the activities of criminals, terrorists and bandits around the world.</p> <p> </p> <p>Received: 14 May 2021 / Accepted: 5 August 2021 / Published: 5 September 2021</p> Okpuvwie Ejuvweyere Jonathan Akinyede Joseph Olusola Tohozin Coovi Aime Bernadin Toko Mouhamadou Inoussa Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-05 2021-09-05 12 5 71 71 10.36941/mjss-2021-0045 Influence of Age and School Type on Reform Practices Performed by School Heads https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/12608 <p><em>The purpose of this study is to examine the level of implementing reform practices and their resulting stress and to explore the influence of age, gender, school type and tracking type on performing reform practices and the perceived stress in implementing reforms among school leaders. A quantitative research design was used with respondents sampled from among senior high school heads. The data were analysed using multinomial logistic regression to examine the influence of demographic (age and gender) and school variables (school type and tracking type) on implementing reform and its perceived stressfulness. The findings showed that on implementing reforms and its inherent stressfulness, a majority of school heads ‘always’ perform reform duties and a greater proportion reported high-stress levels in implementing reforms from 'somewhat causes’ stress to ‘causes great’ stress. Regarding demographic and school variables, age was a significant negative predictor of implementing reforms, indicating that younger heads were more likely to perform reform functions than older heads while school type significantly influences stress level in implementing reforms, implying that heads in boarding schools were more likely to experience higher stress levels in implementing reforms than heads in day schools. The authors recommended continuous in-service training for school heads, the practice of distributive leadership style and provision of infrastructure to phase out the double-track (shift system) in some schools.</em></p> <p> </p> <p>Received: 4 June 2020 / Accepted: 20 August 2021 / Published: 5 September 2021</p> Innocent Kwame Bedi Hasso Kukemelk Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-05 2021-09-05 12 5 82 82 10.36941/mjss-2021-0046 The Impact of Movies on Tourism among Egyptian Youth https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/12609 <p><em>The research study aims to examine the impact of movies on tourism among Egyptian youth by studying the different genres of movies and the different types and forms of tourism besides applying infotainment to discover the elements of information and entertainment in movies which encourage the youth to travel. A survey is conducted of a disproportionate stratified sample of 500 Egyptian university students divided equally between private and public universities and between males and females who have passion for traveling, travel at least once a year and are members of travel Facebook groups. The results show that Egyptian and non-Egyptian movies encourage Egyptian university students to travel abroad. The most popular types of movie-induced tourism among the youth are traveling to destinations portrayed in movies, organized tour of portrayed locations, tour of studio sets and movie-themed park. The findings indicate that movie- induced tourism is affected by movies' infotainment.</em></p> <p> </p> <p>Received: 22 July 2021 / Accepted: 28 September 2021 / Published: 5 September 2021</p> Dina Farouk Abou Zeid Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-05 2021-09-05 12 5 90 90 10.36941/mjss-2021-0047 Primary School Enrolment, Public Spending on Education and Economic Growth in Nigeria https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/12610 <p><em>This paper investigates the effect of primary school enrolment and public education spending on Nigeria’s economic growth using the Autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL) for the period 1987 and 2017. The coefficient of the error correction model (ECM) reveals a negative sign of -0.304216 which implies that any disequilibrium in the system in the previous year will be corrected at a speed of 30.42 percent annually. Both the short run and long run models were nicely fitted with high coefficients of determination (R2) of about 62 percent. The analysis of the result also showed that primary school enrolment rate and public expenditure on education increased but their effects were less impactful on Nigeria’s economic growth. These findings perhaps could be attributed to the poor state of classrooms across, poor teacher-pupil ratio, unstable macroeconomic environment, dearth of instructional materials and more. The paper thus recommend that there should be re-design of educational strategies by the government to include enrolment campaigns, alternative learning programs, pro-poor economic incentive and more, especially at the basic education level and also increased her budgetary allocation to education sector in line with UNESCO recommendation of about 26 percent.</em></p> <p> </p> <p>Received: 9 June 2021 / Accepted: 28 September 2021 / Published: 5 September 2021</p> Simeon Gbimoiye Nenbee Igbogidi Eseoghene Danielle Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-05 2021-09-05 12 5 103 103 10.36941/mjss-2021-0048 King Zog’s Foreign Policy with Neighboring Countries https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/12611 <p><em>Zogu has resolutely defended the freedom and independence of his country. Zogu consolidated diplomatic relations with neighboring countries and the political strategy followed by him brought not only economic stability, but also protection of the territory. Seen from that prespective, the purpose of this paper is to show that the policy pursued by King Zog, influenced the establishment of peace in the country and protected the entire Balkans by not further complicating the situation and neutralizing the greedy interests and intentions of Yugoslavia for the territory of Albania, especially St. Naum. In 1924 King Zog had also a possed Yugoslavia’s intervention and intrigues. Throughout his policy, he aimed to achieve Balkan’s peace, because Zogu understanding very well that this would bring peace to Albania as well. The foreign policy led by Zog, deprived neighboring countries of any wishing conflicts. Thus the peace in Europe would have been in jeopardy as a result of threatening Balkans’s peace.</em></p> <p> </p> <p>Received: 7 July 2021 / Accepted: 30 August 2021 / Published: 5 September 2021</p> Emirjola Yzeiraj Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-05 2021-09-05 12 5 114 114 10.36941/mjss-2021-0049 The Circular Economy in the Popular Republic of China: A Multilevel Strategy for a New Model of Economic and Social Development https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/12664 <p class="05ABSTRACT">The following work analyzes the principal differences in the implementation of the circular economy model between Europe and China, with a focus on practices and strategies set in place by the asiatic Popular Republic to promote the sustainable development. For that purpose, in this work, relevant trial studies on the management and deployment of circular economy in China and on green behaviors of Chinese population have been examined</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT"> </p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">Received: 20 July 2021 / Accepted: 30 August 2021 / Published: 5 September 2021</p> Gianluca Senatore Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-05 2021-09-05 12 5 122 122 10.36941/mjss-2021-0050