Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences <p>Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences publishes six issues per year in January, March, May, July, September and November. MJSS has been published from January 2017 to September 2019 by Sciendo DeGruyter now acquired from Richtmann. For submissions use the online system or send your manuscript by email to:</p> Richtmann Publishing en-US Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 2039-9340 <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p> <p>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>.</p> A Political Economy of Wellbeing/Wellness in Nigeria <p class="05ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US">Since the turn of the new millennium, which was the period of clear comparison and computation of the misery index, Nigeria had always record low in the index for the report. Within the last three years, the misery index that was published has shown that Nigeria is the sixth (6th) most miserable country that one can reside. This measure of misery index was also substantiated by the recent report from the World Bank on the issue of poverty, inequality, and wellness. However, it seems to be an intensified interest in how Nigeria will overcome such an unpleasant pattern. In this research, the study examined how macroeconomic indices in enhancing people’s wellbeing—utilising economic growth, monetary policy position, and governance efficiency as, unemployment, interest rate, and inflation rate for macroeconomic performance indicators. The conclusions drawn suggest that economic growth, resulting in the advancement of wellbeing via allocative as well as distributive productivity is possible. Second, there is a stiffening effect on the wellbeing of contractionary monetary policy which increases interest rates and unemployment rates. The outcome extracted also shows that unnecessary domestic lending characteristics of the Nigerian economic system invalidate the wellbeing of the Nigerian people. Therefore, it proposed that the monetary authority reevaluate its present position on sustaining a high level of rediscount rate.</span></p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">&nbsp;</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US">Received: 17 November 2021 / Accepted: 30 December 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022</span></p> Anselm Adodo Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 13 1 1 1 10.36941/mjss-2022-0001 Incidence of Girl-Child Defilement in Ugbighokho Community South-South Nigeria: The Way Forward <p>This study explores the incidence of girl-child defilement in Ugbighokho Community, South-south Nigeria. The study was guided by the ecological system perspective and the play therapy. The study pointed out some of the socio-economic factors that causes the girl-child defilement which includes, poverty, ignorance, gender inequality and the nature of child’s residence or environment where the child lives. The sample size of this study was 400 using the simple random sampling technique. The cross sectional survey method was adopted for this study. The study established that poverty was the main cause of the girl-child defilement in Ugbighokho Community. The study further revealed that social tie was the main cause for under-reporting of girl-child defilement which in turn has a far-reaching effect on the victim(s). The study therefore recommends poverty alleviation programmes as a means of generating income activities for caregivers in order to prevent them from being compromised by offenders.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Received: 21 September 2021 / Accepted: 25 December 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022</p> Osamuyi Aghasomwan Bello Isoken Linda Osunde Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 13 1 14 14 10.36941/mjss-2022-0002 New Governance in the European Union: Omc <p>The main purpose of this paper is to study the new governance in the European Union: the open method of coordination (hereinafter: OMC). Some of the main features of the OMC are: an instrument of spreading the best practices of achieving the EU's main goals; to help member states develop their policies; creating a calendar for achieving project goals: short, medium and long term; translating European guidelines into national and regional policies specifying objectives and measures; as well as periodic monitoring and evaluation. The main value of the OMC is all involvement in decision-making: European Union institutions, civil society, interest groups, media, etc., through the OMC play a role in the process of drafting public policies and monitoring and evaluating implementation. The OMC aims to complement the 'democratic deficit' of EU institutions, especially in the education policy, employment policies and social welfare policies. We have used two methods for research of the paper. The first, the method of research of scientific and academic literature related to the European Union. Second, the case study of individual cases for displaying the new governance format: OMC in the European Union. The result of the research is to understand what new governance in the European Union is, when it comes to expression of this form of governance, who are the main actors in implementing new governance, when it has started to apply, etc. The conclusion of the paper is that the new governance in the European Union: the OMC has transformed the decision-making process as well as the process of drafting policies, strategies and legislation within the EU.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Received: 26 October 2021 / Accepted: 15 December 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022</p> Ylber Aliu Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 13 1 25 25 10.36941/mjss-2022-0003 Water Diplomacy: And the Share of the Nile River between Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan <p>Water diplomacy across international borders can be a useful tool in solving problems related to the shared water resources of the political entities involved, especially when the interests of the countries are diverse. Water disputes can likely lead to potential conflicts if not properly address in a holistic manner to satisfy all parties concerned. Many discussions about water resources that cut across international borders have focused on their potential for either conflict or cooperation. Africa as a continent with shared resources is not isolated from these enormous challenges concerning the share of natural resources such as water. Africa is generally seen as a fragile region, and the signs of water conflicts in it have begun to appear in clear and dangerous forms. Diplomatic options for settling water disputes and avoiding any potential repercussions seems for the likelihood. Notwithstanding, these options Water Diplomacy has many challenges that limit its effectiveness owing to the deep political tensions among the countries. This study focused on analyzing the concept of water diplomacy and look into the dispute over the share of the Nile River, while highlighting the legitimate right of Egypt, Ethiopia, and Sudan in line with international conventions on water resources.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Received: 24 September 2021 / Accepted: 25 November 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022</p> Francis Kwesi Kyirewiah Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 13 1 32 32 10.36941/mjss-2022-0004 Exploring Primary School Principals’ Experiences in Supporting Teachers Living with HIV/AIDS in Gauteng Province <p>The study highlighted the exploration and description of the primary school principals’ experiences in supporting teachers living with HIV/AIDS in Gauteng Province, South Africa. As a result of qualitative research method through literature review and interviews which were used in collecting data from the primary school participants, the results revealed that at primary level, school principals still lack the experiences in as far as supporting their teachers living with HIV/AIDS in Gauteng province is concerned.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Received: 7 October 2021 / Accepted: 25 November 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022</p> Mabatho Sedibe Herman Matjeke Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 13 1 43 43 10.36941/mjss-2022-0005 Factors Influencing Competition in the Maize Milling Sector in South Africa <p class="05ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US" style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;">Although the maize milling industry in South Africa is highly attractive and profitable, new entrants are unsuccessful. Thus, understanding the factors influencing competition is important for developing strategies which can help new entrants to be more resilient and also succeed. A case study of a very successful organization in the industry was conducted using Porters five forces model, to explore the factors influencing competition in the industry. The selected organization employs a differentiation strategy which enables it to constantly improve and introduce new maize meal varieties to serve a wide range of customers. The findings revealed that the selected organization employs resources, capabilities and knowledge in its business processes to sustain its competitive advantage. Thus, it is recommended that firms entering this industry should harmonize internal resources, knowledge, capabilities and external forces to generate a competitive advantage.</span></p> <p class="05ABSTRACT">&nbsp;</p> <p class="05ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span>Received: 18 November 2021 / Accepted: 30 December 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022</p> H. A. Mtisi K. K. Govender Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 13 1 50 50 10.36941/mjss-2022-0006 Implementation of Ex-Gratia Claim Payment in Insurance Agreement <p>This study aims to explain descriptively about the implementation of ex-gratia claims on life insurance agreements, how to pay and settle ex-gratia claims and ex-gratia claim terms. In the Life Insurance agreement, the insured party when experiencing an unexpected risk of obtaining its rights in the settlement of claims. The occurrence of rejection of claims on life insurance, becomes the cause of a lack of understanding of the actual articles and regulations must be understood before deciding to use insurance. In fact, not all losses suffered by the insured in the insurance agreement can be paid according to the agreement. It is caused by several factors that are considered to violate the principles of insurance and regulations that have been determined in the insurance agreement, resulting in the cancellation of the insurer pays its obligations to the insured or commonly called rejected claims. But customers sometimes still demand that the company pay, therefore the insurance company takes the initiative to pay claims rejected through Ex-gratia. But many people do not know about the ex-gratia claim.&nbsp; Some insurers take the initiative to pay ex-gratia rejected claims. Implementation of ex gratia claims can be done by negotiation, good faith from the insurer to the insured.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Received: 15 October 2021 / Accepted: 30 November 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022</p> Wiwin Wintarsih Windiantina Eman Suparman Isis Ikhwansyah Nyulistiowati Suryanti Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 13 1 60 60 10.36941/mjss-2022-0007 Batna City from Organized Planning to Distortion (Case Study Biskra Road Axis - Algeria) <p>The ecological processes known to the various manifestations of visual pollution, which is defined as: every element of the physical environment is affected by changes or interventions made by man to the natural and constructed environment, which leads to its distortion and harms the public health of citizens. In order to understand its reasons for reaching a balanced urban scene and thus affecting human health. Where its features appear in various visual and visual aspects of public space, especially roads, due to the misuse of this space, which stems from wrong behaviors in addition to the lack of the planning system,which leads to emptying the architectural image of the city of its content.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Received: 11 October 2021 / Accepted: 20 November 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022</p> Khireddine Dounia Aichour Boudjemaa Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 13 1 77 77 10.36941/mjss-2022-0008 Examining Social Exchange Theory and Social Change in the Works of George Caspar Homans – Implications for the State and Global Inequalities in the World Economic Order <p>This paper focuses on the critical investigation of ‘Social Exchange theory’ and ‘Social Change’ in the works of George Homans. The objectives are to appropriate the interpenetrations of the twin concepts, and their implications towards the amelioration of the human condition both within the state, and within the global socio-economic relations. Thus, the paper achieves its objectives by applying a qualitative-critical descriptive method of analysis on the subject matter –with a critique from Peter Blau’s variant perspective for helpful extrapolations to explaining human condition within the state, and globally. The paper made some findings, draws conclusions, and recommendations. A few of these findings include 1) the propensities of breaching the norm of reciprocity in social exchange process are higher than the tendencies to maintain the norm; 2) at the breach of the norm of reciprocity, there are higher risks of losses than the gains, and there are immanent implications; 3).That societal progress can also emerge via resistance to an ‘apopular’ status quo. The paper concluded that, there is a semblance of order when the norm of reciprocity is observed among nations, and within nations; but moments of aggression exists with immanent crisis-tendencies that are anti-development where the norm is violated. Therefore, the paper recommends: the state should be committed to its part of the social contract with the citizenry in terms of provisions of human-centered development facilities; and where the state loses the sanctity of its legitimacy and turns to a ‘class-state’, counter-reactions and resistance from the subaltern classes (the civil society) through protests for progressive social change or for the improvement of the human condition, should not be discouraged. Additionally, the advanced nations should recognize the socioeconomic rights of the less developed nations for a fair deal in the global economic relations.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Received: 29 November 2021 / Accepted: 28 December 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022</p> Hyginus Obinna Ogbonna Chidi Slessor Mbah Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 13 1 90 90 10.36941/mjss-2022-0009 Testing the Four Basic Language Skills in the English Language Component of the Mature Students' Entrance Examinations: The Case of Six Ghanaian Universities <p>This study focused on the Mature Students’ Entrance Examinations (MSEE) which is a commonly used Ghanaian university placement examination. The fundamental aim was to evaluate the comprehensiveness of the English language component of the examination in the area of the four basic language skills (Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening) tested. A second objective of the study was to explore the reasons behind the choices of the basic language skills tested in the MSEE. The multiple case study design was employed for this study, and the sources of data used were responses from in-depth interviews and the past questions. The data were subjected to analysis via thematic content analysis and document analysis respectively. The analysis highlights the specific contents of the past questions and their related basic language skills tested, as well as the reasons underlying the basic language skills tested. The results revealed that only two of the basic language skills (Reading and Writing) were tested, and time limitations and logistical challenges informed lecturers’ decisions not to test Speaking and Listening. The study recommends that Listening and Speaking tasks be incorporated into the examination to make it comprehensive.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Received: 2 September 2021 / Accepted: 16 November 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022</p> Ramos Asafo-Adjei Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 13 1 105 105 10.36941/mjss-2022-0010 Small and Medium Scale Enterprises’ Activities and Eonomic Developmemnt in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria <p>This paper assesses the impact of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) activities on economic development in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. To achieve this theme, an instrument Called Small and Medium Scale Enterprises Survey Questionnaire (SMEQ) was developed which focused more on employment generation and poverty reduction. The population of the study was chosen based on the two thousand six hundred and thirty-four (2634) registered SMEs with the Rivers State Ministry of Commerce and Industry in 2019. Based on simple random sampling technique, a total of three hundred and thirty-eight (338) respondents were sampled. Relying on descriptive statistics and logistic regression estimation techniques, the data were analyzed. Analyses of the respondents’ opinion suggest that the major businesses engaged in the study area were restaurant, tailoring and beauty/hair dressing. Again, majority of the respondents were of the opinion that SMEs operators do not have increased access to basic social-economic amenities. The output of the logistic regression result has it that an increase in firm size can improve the chances of SMEs fostering economic development in Obio-Akpor while increase in the salary of employees could also enhance the chances of SMEs to redress the rising poverty level too. The paper thus recommends that employment tax incentives should be granted to proprietors of SMEs and taming of the rising insecurity cases across the country.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Received: 11 September 2021 / Accepted: 25 November 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022</p> Ukamaka P. Chidume Simeon G. Nenbee Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 13 1 118 118 10.36941/mjss-2022-0011