Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences <p>Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences publishes six issues per year in January, March, May, July, September and November. MJSS has been published from January 2017 to September 2019 by Sciendo DeGruyter now acquired from Richtmann. For submissions use the online system or send your manuscript by email to:</p> en-US <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p> <p>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>.</p> (Prof. Alessandro Figus) (Lina Brown) Mon, 17 May 2021 22:51:45 +0200 OJS 60 Comparison of the Effectiveness of Four Scoring Techniques in Secondary School Multiple-Choice Test Items in Financial Accounting <p><em>Poor academic performance of students in senior secondary school certificate examination in some commercial subjects may be attributed to ineffective scoring techniques used by classroom teachers and examination bodies. Therefore, this study compared the effectiveness of four scoring techniques in multiple-choice financial accounting in secondary schools of Osun state, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey and Quasi-experimental research designs. The sample consisted of 420 senior secondary schools (SSSII) Financial Accounting students selected using Multi-stage sampling technique. An instrument titled “Financial Accounting Multiple-Choice Test (FAMT)” with a reliability coefficient of .80 was administered to selected students. The marks obtained through standard conventional, logical weight, corrected and confidence scoring techniques were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings showed that the logical weight scoring technique had the highest mean value of 40.63 when compared with other scoring techniques. It was also revealed that there was a significant difference in the performance of students in Financial Accounting multiple-choice test items using the four scoring techniques (F(3,1676) =31.494, p&lt;.05). Based on the findings, it was concluded that students performed better using the logical weight scoring technique in Financial Accounting multiple-choice test items and is the most effective scoring technique among others. The study recommended that a logical weight scoring technique should be encouraged and used in scoring Financial Accounting multiple-choice test items in secondary schools by examination bodies.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Received: 27 March 2021 / Accepted: 29 April 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021</em></p> Olaitan Isaac Fadipe, Yinusa A. Faremi Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Assessing the Effectiveness of Human Resource Management in Creating Organisational Competitiveness in a South African State-Owned Enterprise <p><em>South African state-owned enterprises (SOEs) have been underperforming for the past decade riddled with poor service delivery, employee retrenchments, lack of employee motivation and inability to embrace innovative approaches in management of business. There has been a call from the South African government for SOEs to self-renew and become effective in service delivery. As a result the role of human resource management (HRM) assist organisations to become effective through the use of innovative human resource practices. This paper is an investigation carried out at a selected South African SOE to determine the effectiveness of HRM in creating organisational competitiveness.&nbsp; A qualitative research approach was adopted where interviews were used to gather data from the company’s human resource practitioners and departmental heads. Non-probability sampling was used and 24 participants were purposively selected. The study revealed that HR practitioners do not participate in policy reviews whereas their skills are underutilised, they lack latest technology and it was noted that there is excessive control from high authorities. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Received: 11 February 2021 / Accepted: 16 March 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021</em></p> Bongani Innocent Dlamini, Luther-King Junior Zogli, Arvid Muzanenhamo Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 A Review of Cyberbullying and Cybervictimization: Taxonomy, Challenges, Limitations, and Recommendations for Future Researchers <p><em>Cyberbullying and cybervictimization is vital and recent issue that still require further investigations. It is classified as a global problem, serious risk and danger that challenging researchers in term of assessment, nature and measuring that demand massive effort to limit and reduce its prevalence and consequences. The aim of the study is to underline challenges, limitations, and recommendations that related to cyberbullying and cybervictimization that need to be explored and investigated in greater depth in future researches.&nbsp; The current study intends to analyse the twenty- seven previous studies and build taxonomy that highlights gabs and shortage of the phenomena into four main sections: research, programs, methodology and theories and model. Based on researcher analysis there are four main sections that present the challenges and limitations, whereas eleven sub-sections and eight divisions give more details about these challenges and limitations. Discussion: The result of the review present that more factors need to integrate and re-investigate whereas theories need to link, and methodology aspects require to develop. In addition, new aspects and open areas that demand investigate in future. This review and taxonomy provide a unique opportunity to develop and create additional research fields. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Received: 8 March 2021 / Accepted: 20 April 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021</em></p> Andaleep Sadi Ades Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Impact of Organizational Silence on a Sustainable Competitive Advantage: A Case Study of the Electrical Industries Company <p><em>This study seeks to analyze the factors causing organizational silence and the impact of this on the sustainable competitive advantage of organizations, The researchers used the descriptive approach, being the best approach from the researchers' point of view, to clarify the relationship between the research variables and the achievement of the study objectives, The Electric Industries Company was chosen to understand the reality of organizational silence and analyze what is required in order to make the necessary recommendations that can contribute to sustaining the company's competitive advantage and reducing the phenomenon of organizational silence and its effects. The results of research confirmed the inverse correlation between organizational silence and the sustainable competitive advantage, also that the organizational silence has a negative effect on the sustainable competitive advantage. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Received: 11 February 2021 / Accepted: 20 April 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021</em></p> Muayad Abdulkareem Shakir Al-naqeeb, Imad Khaleel Ismael Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Waste and Circular Economy <p><em>This work aims to describe and analyze the new socio economic phenomenon of waste-based circularity. To describe this process of recovery and transformation of waste, which represents the basis of circular economy, it is necessary to understand the complex articulation of the production of goods and materials, their yield and their capacity of transformation. At the heart of all this is a series of human behaviors and habits dictated by legal rules and economic and cultural approaches. If we manage to better understand these behaviors, we can activate a series of processes which could help us to determine and encourage more sustainable behaviors from an environmental, economic and social point of view.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Received: 11 March 2021 / Accepted: 18 April 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021</em></p> Gianluca Senatore, Simone Teofili Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Objectivity is an Elusive Ideal that Can Never be Achieved <p><em>The Paper investigates objectivity of Mass Media in the Middle East. The researcher chooses the most prominient news channel in that turbulent area of the world, namely Al-Jazeera Arabic news channel and examines its journey to claim its assumed objectivity. The paper gives analysis of objectivity in different cultureal contexts.&nbsp; It shows the ways Al-Jazeera established itself as an objective voice and how it presented itself as an alternative view to the dominant western perspective of global news.&nbsp; At the end the paper takes an intersting turn by bringing objectivity back to its "stallwart" – American journalism, where it&nbsp; was openly dropped in the face of national threat. The study realizes that the same conditions which gave Al-Jazeera Arabic its objectivity, in the eyes of its viewers, were the ones that its competitors used to disclaim its objectivity. Conditions can easily change if circumstances or attitudes changed. The paper concludes that Objectivity, in its bright side, is an elusive ideal that can never be achieved in our turbulant world.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Received: 27 February 2021 / Accepted: 8 April 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021</em></p> Mazen Ajjan Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Time of the Creation of Kanun: An Hystorical Observation through the Terminology <p><em>Different scholars are of different opinions regarding the time when the entity of the Albanian traditional law known as “Kanuni i Leke Dukagjinit” was compiled, precisely the law which reigned supreme in the highlands of Northern Albania. They offer their arguments based on historical data, mainly but also tapping other sources. In order to resolve such a mystery, we can obtain important data through the analyses of the language and terminology used by Father Shtjefen Gjecovi, when he gathered and compiled the Albanian oral tradition of Kanun. The time when Kanun began to govern the life of the inhabitants of Northern Albania is quite important as in this way we can gauge the evolution of the terminology used in the Kanun up to the point that the oral tradition was gathered, compiled and written down by Father Shtjefen Gjecovi at the beginning of the last century. Such a terminology helps us to come to the conclusion that in spite of the fact that Kanun existed many centuries ago, there are a lot of different strata in it up to the modern times ones.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Received: 7 March 2021 / Accepted: 26 April 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021</em></p> Alket Aliu Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Role of Benchmarking in Achieving Competitive Advantage of Egyptian Education Faculties Programs <p><em>The study aimed to identify the concept and types of benchmarking, and to determine the Justifications of choosing benchmarking approach in order to achieve the competitive advantage for Egyptian Education Faculties programs, and also determine the performance indicators for Egyptian Education Foundations programs that can be used when benchmarking with the corresponding programs. The study depended on the descriptive research&nbsp;approach in achieving its objectives and answering its various questions and manipulating its different approaches. The study constructed a suggested model that can be used when benchmarking to Egyptian Education Faculties Programs with its distinct corresponding Programs. The study also showed the complementary relationship between benchmarking and performance indicators and their role in diagnosing an aspect of the competitive reality in the Egyptian Education Faculties programs.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Received: 18 February 2021 / Accepted: 15 April 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021</em></p> Magdy Abd Elrhman Abdallah Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Cultural and Musical Tradition of Elbasan (16th - 20th Century) <p><em>The aim of this paper is to explore and review the role and contribution of Elbasan city in the well-known cultural and musical tradition of Albania. Referring to documents, this tradition dates back in the 16<sup>th</sup> century with the creation of the first musical bands, characteristic of that time, known otherwise as fanfarat or tajfat. During Ottoman invasion, especially during the 16<sup>th</sup>-17<sup>th</sup> century, oriental influence on Albanian folk music has been quite evident. Some musicologists think that this impact has been more evident especially in the music of the middle part of Albania. It needs to be emphasized that this influence has not been absolutely strict, since in most songs it appears either as a collaboration or a parallel version. After the 17<sup>th</sup> century in Elbasan, as well as in its surrounding regions, there was born folk music, firstly as the music of beano, and later on as a typical civic folk music accompanied by the orchestra. Ethnomusicologists think that prior to folk city music, there used to be country folk music, in the north eastern part of Elbasan, in the villages around Zaranika estuary, where old songs were sung, and very soon they were spread even in Elbasan. Meanwhile, by the years 20s and 30s of the 20<sup>th</sup> century in Elbasan there was spread civid folk music whose founders were the trio of: Isuf Myzyri, Leksi i Vinit as well as Mustafa Bodini. Folk songs of Elbasan belong to the musical style of the middle part of Albania; since they are sung in the dialect of Elbasan, they are considered as the civic folk songs of Elbasan. There needs to be highlighted that even during the first half of the 20<sup>th</sup> century, a great role in the musical and cultural tradition was played by the social and patriotic clubs, such as “Bashkimi” (1908), “Drita”, Vllaznia (18 April 1908) as well as the creation of patriotic society known as “Afërdita”. The latest one, in 1917 reestablished a musical band as well with the same name “Afërdita”, which existed before. This band besides various marches, it used to play hymns too by using wind instruments, folk music not only in Elbasan but even in other towns in Albania. The band “Afërdita” functioned until the early years of World War 2. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Received: 6 February 2021 / Accepted: 20 April 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021</em></p> Kastriot Tusha Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Exploring Challenges Faced by Rural Zimbabwean School-Going Single Mothers in Nurturing Children: A Literature Perspective <p><em>In sub-Saharan African countries, school-going single mothers are a rapidly growing new form of family. However, this pervasive phenomenon and its influence on child development have caught miniature thought. It is in this context that this paper sought to gain insights from a literature perspective on challenges confronted by rural Zimbabwean school-going single mothers in child nurturing. This is a documentary review of information considered relevant to the issue under investigation. In this context, the literature method was used in generating, data from purposively sampled sources. Against this background, the analysis revealed that school-going single mothers encounter numerous challenges, such as the difficulty to maintain discipline and authority in their ‘new’ family setting, social ostracism through school-going single mothers, and their children's experience of adverse stances in social, emotional and economic obstacles. Thus, single mothers in these rural societies take on all the chores, child upkeep and in most cases are susceptible to social separation, which forms a situation, which does not bring up children’s social and cognitive development. In this context, it can therefore be concluded that these detected challenges influence how school-going single mothers in the rural Zimbabwe context nurture their children. It is against this background that we recommend that school-going single mothers are encouraged to find means of exercising positive parenting that ensures that their children are well-groomed and provided for. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Received: 11 February 2021 / Accepted: 20 April 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021</em></p> Pinias Chikuvadze, Lydia K. Magutsa, Judith Musengi, Getrude Gonzo Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200