Effect of Instructional Leadership, Principal Efficacy, Teacher Efficacy and School Climate on Students’ Academic Achievements
This study is aimed to identify the influence of instructional leadership, principal’s efficacy, teachers’ efficacy and school climate on the academic achievement of national secondary school students in the Sri Aman Division, Sarawak. The respondents of the study consisted of 186 teachers in 7 National Secondary Schools (NSS) in Sri Aman, Sarawak. This study used a quantitative method that is a cross-sectional approach for data collection purposes. Respondents responded using a questionnaire. The SmartPLS 3.0 path modelling software of the route model was used for PLS-SEM analysis. The results of the PLS-SEM analysis found that the instructional leadership of principals, efficacy of principals, efficacy of teachers and school climate have significant relationships with students' academic achievement in the 7 National Secondary Schools (NSS) in Sri Aman, Sarawak. This proves that these four variables have a strong influence on students' academic achievement and are predictors of students’ academic achievement performance at national secondary schools in the Sri Aman Division. However, teachers’ experience as a moderating factor was found to not affect the independent variables against the dependent variable. Finally, a comprehensive analysis on the implications of the study was carried out so that it can contribute to the scientific field of research in education.
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