The Ivanaj Reform and Its Impact on the Italian-Albanian Relations


  • Antoneta Hoxha


In 1931-1935 there have been numerous events that played an important role in Albanian foreign political orientation, governed by AhmetZogu at that time. The King Zog, tried to make an independent foreign policy by approaching to its neighbour countries and by establishing new political relations as a result of an anti- italianism stream created in the country, as well as a result of the italian interventions and the fear from italian influence. The Government of Tirana undertook a series of measures that reconfirmed the independent line, which were against italian politics in Albania. One of these reforms was the educational reform of 1933 for the nationalization of the Albanian school and making it a national school, known in the history as “Ivanaj Reform”. This reform, with a nationalist character, that intended the national school unification led to the closure of all the private and foreign schools in Albania. There were immediate reactions from the foreign and local press toward this event, but the toughest attitudes were from neighbor countries. As e response Italy decided to cut all financial aids. Whereas Greece accused for violations toward greek minority rights and brought the issue to the International Court of Hague, which by its side recommended the Albanian government to reopen the Greek schools. Found in tough economical position and after none of other Balkan and European countries gave their help, the King Zog was obligated to return to italian “friendship” and together in 1936 signed a series of agreements.

DOI: 10.5901/ajis.2014.v3n3p301


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How to Cite

The Ivanaj Reform and Its Impact on the Italian-Albanian Relations. (2014). Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 3(3), 301.