Local Governance in Albania: The New Administrative-Territorial Reform
AbstractSince the creation of the Albanian state, local government has seen numerous transformations influenced by various factors such as external and internal ones. This has led to a variety of bodies which have comparative basis between them for study purposes. Changes in the local governance organs have come as a result of adaptation to the way the country was governed. For research purposes, the work will be divided into four main parts, the part of the historical survey which covers the period 1920- 1944 and 1944-1990. During these periods occurred many changes in the content of local government in Albania. The third part deals with the local government after 1990, during the difficult period of transition and adaptation with the new legislation based on democratic principles and those of the European Union. The last part will be focused on the new administrative-territorial reform, as a very important experience that can bring fundamental changes in the organization of new local government bodies. In this research I will give a full overview of the definition of local government compared with other legislations mostly to the European Union member States. Then there will be a detailed study of historical and legal side of this local governance concept in our country, defining not only the elements but also its operation, ie organizational and functional side during the years 1920-1944 and 1945-1990. What were the main issues during the Zog period and foreign influence in local government organization. Practical achievement of such an organization and limitations. I will speak in detail on the Zog Law of Municipalities, one of the most successful laws that can compare with the current laws concerning the organization and functioning of local government. Later during the totalitarian system in Albania, which were the local government bodies, as they change, what functions and how were were composed. Then there will be treated the period post-90s, the period of transition, the organization of structures and issues in relation to adaptation and performance of their functions. Here it will be mentioned the changes that suffered the law on local government derived by EU law, which Albania was forced to implement as a result of the integration process. In the last part will be treated the new administrative-territorial reform, the way it was achieved this division, the methodology provided and reality in which the separation was made, the critical approach with regard to the constitutional aspect regarding the popular consultation and the values that this reform, positive and negative sides to it.
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