New Challenges in Albanian Primary Schools: Industry versus Inferiority


  • Esmeralda Hoti Ph.D student in History of Education, University of Macerata, Italy


Erikson called the school years "industry versus inferiority" and this is because students begin to see the relationship between perseverance and the pleasure of a task well done. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, or friends will doubt their ability in being successful. Difficulties in these challenges can result in a feeling of inferiority. Erikson’s psychosocial theory emphasized the emergence of the self, the search for identity, the individual’s relationship with the others, and the role of culture throughout life. Schools in Albania have always given a significant educational value to further qualitative instruction to the infancy. In Albania, the experience of engaging in creative work all the children is to be considered significant for a better and possible integration of the new methods of encouraging Industry in the primary school. The reason is that children must face the demands of learning new skills; otherwise they will risk a sense of failure and incompetence. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the way teachers use encouraging Industry in “Lush Kola”, “Ismail Qemali” and “Ndre Mjeda” primary schools in Shkoder, Albania. About 20 teachers were selected randomly and they were only female teachers. The materials used in the study were formal interviews and direct observation. The emergent themes were discussed and the results showed that teachers have no information about psychosocial theory of development and the most important challenge concerns the presence of specialist to assisting student with special needs.

DOI: 10.5901/jesr.2013.v3n7p728


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How to Cite

Hoti, E. (2013). New Challenges in Albanian Primary Schools: Industry versus Inferiority. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 3(7), 728. Retrieved from