Classroom Instruction Reinforcement Strategies and Factors that Influence their Implementation in Kenyan Primary Schools
AbstractThe study investigated classroom instruction reinforcement strategies and factors that influence implementation of the reinforcement strategies used by primary school teachers in the classroom in Kikuyu district of Kenya. The study was guided by the Operant Conditioning Theory. The study employed a Mixed Methods design in which both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. The target population teachers and pupils from public primary schools. Data was collected by using questionnaires and interview schedules. Quantitative data was analyzed using inferential statistics while Qualitative data was analyzed by using the thematic and content analysis. The study reported that social reinforcement in form of praise was the most popular reinforcement strategy used in classroom teaching followed by tangible items, activity and tokens in that order. The factors that affected implementation of reinforcement strategies by teachers during classroom instruction were class interest, social characteristics and delivery. Other factors were class size, gender, availability of reinforcers, class level and nature of content. The study recommends that teachers should carry out reinforcement assessment needed prior to using instructional reinforcement programs.
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