Circumstantial Ethics in Albanian Higher Education: Volitional vs Arbitrary Participation of the Bologna System


  • Indrit Vucaj


Circumstantial ethics in Albanian higher education: volitional vs arbitrary participation of the Bologna system. Ethics and ethical behavior are major study topics (Banerjee, 1998) among business and academic circles (Bass & Hebert, 1995). Reports of unethical behaviors and the bypass of the societal code of conduct have drawn heavy criticism from the public and according to Bass and Hebert (1995) they have ?led to a decline of public trust (pg. 727)?. Charitable philanthropic organizations such as Helping Hearts and Hands, International Humanities Center and private for-profit organizations such WorldCom, Enron, Lehman Brothers, Bernie Madoff etc., are some of the few names that people associate with when speaking about unethical behavior. According to Ho (2011), philosophically speaking, ethical behavior is ascribing oneself to ?good? or ?right? behavior. Moreover, ethical decision-making is determined by individuals using their moral base to determine what?s right or wrong (Ho, 2011). Congruently, Davis and Frederick (1984) define ethics as ?the rules or principles that define right and wrong conduct (p. 76).? However, Grazioli (1990) states that even the most respected, sincere and brilliant minds can be wrecked on by the combination of ?progressive humanistic logic and situational ethics (pg. 112).? In fact, Parsa and Lankford (1999) believe that ethical and unethical behaviors are a function of the person and the environment. Banerjee (1998) concluded, based on the work of Rosen (in Banerjee, 1998) that ethical/unethical behavior is some special occurring within the realm of human behavior. In other words, Banerjee (1988) states that ethical and unethical behavior is existent but simply is differentiated to the extent the kind of moral judgment that represents one?s aura and personal moral developments in different situations. Situational ethics, a term coined by Joseph Fletcher who is identified as the ?Father of Situation Ethics? (McHugh, 2006) contends that the right and wrong depend upon the situation and there are no universal moral rules or rights and each case deserves unique solution. It can also describe ?the situational factors associated with an ethical dilemma (Robertson, et al., 2002, pg. 328).? As such was the decision to adopt the Bologna-system of education in 2003 by the Albanian policy-makers and apply it to Albanian public and private universities. This paper attempts to explore the main cause for the adaptation of the Bologna higher education system. It is often assume that elected officials act on behalf of their constituents with good intentions. However, even decision makers who have good intentions can fall pray of unethical behavior in situational-induced biases circumstances (Kellaris, Boyle, & Dahlstrom, 1994). In fact, circumstances have always been a focus of analysis for scientists in many different social sciences?sociology, anthropology, economics, politics etc. (Todeva, 1997)

DOI: 10.5901/jesr.2015.v5n1p73


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How to Cite

Vucaj, I. (2015). Circumstantial Ethics in Albanian Higher Education: Volitional vs Arbitrary Participation of the Bologna System. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 5(1), 73. Retrieved from