Effects of Historical Simulations as Narrative and Graphic Advance Organizers on Nigerian Junior Secondary School Students’ Learning Outcomes in Basic Science
AbstractThe study determined the effects of historical simulations (Story-telling Instructional Strategy (SIS) and Story-telling combined with Cartoon Instructional Strategy (SCIS)); and compared the effectiveness of SIS, SCIS and Conventional Teacher Expository Method (CTEM) in improving the performance of students in Basic Science concepts. It also compared the attitudes of students toward learning of Basic Science when SIS and SCIS are used as advance organizers in learning; and examined the effects of SIS and SCIS on the retention ability of students. The research design was non-equivalent pre-test, post-test control group quasi-experimental. The population comprised all Junior Secondary School (JSS) II students in Osun State. The sample comprised 126 JSS II Basic Science students in their intact classes from three schools selected by random sampling technique. Three schools were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and one control group. Treatments to experimental groups were based on the use of advance organizers, with SIS group taught using story-telling instructional strategy and SCIS by story-telling combined with cartoon instructional strategy. The control group, CTEM, was taught using the conventional teacher expository method. The instruments used for the study were the Achievement Test on Basic Science (ATBS) and Questionnaire on Attitude of Students toward the use of Advance Organizers (QASAO). Data collected were analyzed using t-test, One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Post hoc (Tukey) multiple comparison test. The results showed that historical simulations (SIS and SCIS) were significantly effective in improving students’ performance in Basic Science with significant difference in the pre and post treatment scores for SIS (t = 22.85, p < 0.05) and SCIS (t = 14.42, p < 0.05). A significant difference also existed among the three groups (SIS, SCIS and CTEM) in students’ posttest performance (F = 140.59, p < 0.05) with the performance of students taught using SIS and SCIS statistically better in posttest than the CTEM treatment. There was also no significant difference in the attitudes of students toward Basic Science when SIS and SCIS were used as advance organizers (t = 1.53, p > 0.05). In addition, the results showed that SIS and SCIS had significant effect on the retention ability of the students and a significant difference existed in the retention ability of students exposed to use of SIS and SCIS as advance organizers (t = 3.34, p < 0.05) with SCIS being the most effective. It was concluded that advance organizer strategies, SIS and SCIS, could be used to effectively enhance students’ learning and retention of Basic Science and also promote their interest in the subject.
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