Comparing Guided Discovery and Exposition-with-Interaction Methods In Teaching Biology in Secondary Schools
AbstractGuided discovery (GD) method of teaching biology is recommended in secondary schools but many teachers use exposition-with-interaction (EI). GD requires process skills such as experiment design, observation and manipulation of variables to discover answers; whereas EI uses lecturing, asking questions and giving notes to learners to memorize content. These two methods have different outcomes on achievement and therefore there is a need to establish their efficacies. The purpose of the study was to compare the effect of the two methods on learners’ achievement in secondary schools. Ex post-facto design was used. Target population consisted of 60 biology teachers and 2,172 form 4 students. The study sampled 42 form 4 (Grade 9) biology teachers purposively and 1502 form 4 students randomly. Three instruments were used to collect data: teacher-questionnaire to find out the extent to which GD and EI were used; Science Teaching Observation Schedule (STOS) to confirm evidence from the questionnaire and biology stake examination trial results to provide scores. Experts in the department were consulted to determine validity. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as percentages, frequency and averages and inferential statistics were done using t-test (p < 0.05). Results indicated that mean achievement of students taught using GD method was higher than that of the EI method. Thus, the use of GD in teaching biology is recommended. The study may be beneficial to educational practitioners, policy makers and researchers to improve performance of learners in biology.
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