Balkan Conflict, the Disintegration of Yugoslavia and the ICTY
AbstractYugoslavia as South Slavic state, initially formed in 1918, under the name of Kingdom of three Slavic peoples: Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, and then as communist country, established after the World War II, has played an important role in regional and international politics. The new federation consisted of six republics and two autonomous provinces, which were constitutive elements of federation having the right of veto. Yugoslav state played an important role on the international stage, especially through Non-Aligned Movement which was founded with India and Egypt. Its leader, Josip Broz Tito, has suppressed nationalism in all the republics and thus managed to keep the Yugoslav nations united around the communist idea, by transforming Yugoslavia into a very strong economic and military country. But, after his death in 1980, nationalisms surfaced and began disintegrating the federation. In this regard, the Serbian nationalism has been particularly distinguished, which has by the use of the Yugoslav National Army (JNA) started wars against other peoples of the Yugoslav federation, who sought secession and independence of their republics. Initially the war started against Slovenia, then Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and more recently against Kosovo Albanians. After many bloody wars that left hundreds of thousands of casualties and millions of refugees, two international conferences had to be held, one in Dayton for Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Rambouillet for Kosovo, including 78-day intervention of NATO aviation aimed to put an end to the never ending conflicts. The resolution of the UN Security Council has also established the Tribunal of Hague which would investigate and adjudicate the crimes committed in Yugoslavia. This Tribunal has imposed 1000 years in prison, especially for Serb military and political leaders. The breakup of the former Yugoslavia resulted in formation of seven new states which are in the path of Euro-Atlantic integration as Slovenia and Croatia which are already permanent members of these organizations.
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